For some students with autism cerebral palsy Down syndrome and. other disabilities speech may not ful ll all of their communication. needs For these students with complex communication needs. CCN the use of Augmentative and Alternative Communication. AAC can have important bene ts Blackstone 1993 2008 2009. There are a wide range of AAC techniques available including. Picture symbol alphabet and word boards,Signs and gestures. Speech generating devices,including specialized computer systems. As with any assistive technology used in a classroom teachers. will need to know how to help their students use AAC e ectively. and e ciently This guide provides an introduction to the ways. students can use AAC to participate in classroom activities It also. describes the variety of resources available to Connecticut teachers. working with students who would bene t from the use of AAC. The use of AAC systems can support,participation for students at any age. in a wide range of academic and social,activities Beukelman Mirenda. The Pictur, One place Connecticut educators and families Used with ic. permission ation Symbols 19,Boardm 81 2009, can turn to for support is the State Education aker is a. er Johnson LLC All Rights R, Resource Center SERC a nonpro t agency LLC eserved W. funded primarily by the Connecticut,State Department of Education SERC. provides professional development,and information dissemination in the. latest research and best practices to,educators service providers and. families throughout the state as,well as job embedded technical. assistance and training within,schools programs and districts. One of the topics for which SERC,provides statewide training and. on site technical assistance is,AAC SERC is also conducting. AAC research and developing AAC,resources both in print and on the. Web for educators and related service,professionals See the back page for. contact information for SERC and other,Connecticut resources. In order to participate in classroom activities students need a way to ask and answer questions provide information interact with. peers and communicate If a student has di culty using speech the student s individualized education program IEP team should. consider the use of AAC to support communication Even students who use limited speech might also use AAC systems to clarify their. message when their speech is not understood It is important that students with complex communication needs have an opportunity. as other students do to communicate and to participate in a wide range of activities at school. Children who have CCN,can start using AAC from a,very early age Storybooks. can be programmed onto,communication devices,to help them read and. talk about the book,More examples of how to,support communication. From GOOD NIGHT GORILLA by Peggy Rathmann copyright c 1994 Peggy Rathmann Used by permission of G P Putnam s Sons A Division of Penguin Young Readers Group with young children are. a Member of Penguin Group USA Inc 345 Hudson Street New York NY 10014 All rights reserved. available at,http aackids psu edu, Other students may have very little speech and use their AAC. system for much of their communication,Sara s story Sara is a young woman studying. rehabilitation services at college She has,cerebral palsy and uses a DynaVox Vmax. speech generating communication device,to communicate and also to write Music is. one of Sara s passions she has performed,using her AAC system at cultural sporting. and political events,To view a video clip of Sara go to. http www dynavoxtech com success,cerebral palsy details aspx id 75. To learn more about Sara s musical talent,visit her Web site at. http www sara sings com index htm, be used People use di erent ways to communicate including. speech facial expressions and gestures For students with. CCN a wide variety of AAC techniques are available to. support communication Beukelman Mirenda 1998, Most people use a range of techniques to meet di erent. needs at di erent times For example while waving hello. is an appropriate greeting individuals with CCN will. need access to more speci c vocabulary perhaps using. a word board or speech generating device to participate. in a science class,How can AAC be used cont,Picture symbol alphabet. and word boards, The use of communication boards with pictures symbols the alphabet and words. can provide access to the vocabulary needed for students with CCN to participate in. school at home and in the community There is an assortment of computer software. available to help create picture and symbol boards Below is an example of a picture. display developed to support a student s participation in a discussion on plants. The Picture Communication Symbols 1981 2009 by Mayer Johnson LLC All Rights Reserved Worldwide. Used with permission Boardmaker is a trademark of Mayer Johnson LLC. Notice that this communication board not only provides a way for the student to answer. questions it also includes vocabulary to form questions In developing a communication. display the goal is to provide students who have CCN with access to the vocabulary used. by their speaking peers, Learning to read and write is especially important for children with CCN Many people who use AAC make use of the. alphabet to help clarify a spoken message i e they make use of their speech and then spell a word if it is not understood. and they also make use of writing to prepare longer messages that may be di cult to speak aloud For these individuals their. communication boards may include a combination of frequently used words as well as an alphabet to spell words on the y. As children who use AAC learn,to read and write they should. have access to frequently used,words With the alphabet. they can spell the words they,want Supports for teaching. students with CCN how to,read and write are available at. http aacliteracy psu edu,Signs and gestures, The use of signs and gestures allows students with CCN to quickly express. frequently used words e g yes no who what when why where please. thank you Some individuals may learn to make use of a large number of. signs while others may use a smaller number of signs in combination with. other AAC techniques, For individuals who are beginning communicators and who are just starting. to learn how their own behavior can in uence the behavior of others it is. especially important that the teacher provides appropriate opportunities for. communication and recognizes and encourages a student s communication. attempts In these situations it may be appropriate for the teacher to o er choices. of actual physical objects and to encourage the individual with CCN to point toward the desired item A speech and language. pathologist can assist in developing communication opportunities for beginning communicators More information on working with. beginning communicators is available at http aackids psu edu. Carr s story, Carr is an 8 year old boy with Down syndrome who is. fully included in a general education classroom He uses a. DynaVox V AAC system to communicate and participate in. the general education curriculum His teachers and parents. have noticed that in addition to improving academically. Carr is happier and more involved in school since he has. learned to communicate using his AAC system To view a. video clip of Carr go to,http www dynavoxtech com success developmental. details aspx id 81, The Picture Communication Symbols 1981 2009 by Mayer Johnson LLC. All Rights Reserved Worldwide Used with permission Boardmaker is a. trademark of Mayer Johnson LLC,Speech generating devices. There are many varieties of AAC devices available as communication supports The availability of speech from a device is often very. motivating to a student with CCN and is especially useful for communicating in a group or with partners who are not familiar with. other methods of AAC, These devices typically contain both pre programmed vocabulary as well as vocabulary important to that particular student e g. names of family members vocabulary needed for school activities etc that has been programmed into the device by an adult who. knows the student well Some devices speak the programmed vocabulary aloud using synthesized speech while others make use of. digitized speech or short recordings of human voices. Pictures symbols letters and words can be represented and organized in many di erent ways according to the user. Students also can operate AAC devices in a number of ways In addition to touching a keyboard or screen students can use their eyes. to control a device with eye tracking technology They can also use switches to scan pictures words and letters on an AAC device. or a computer An occupational therapist can help identify the most e ective way in which people with severe physical disabilities can. operate AAC technology, Strategies for General Education Teachers Serving Students with CCN. Children who use AAC have needs similar to,the needs of other students in the classroom. They require educational programs that are,rigorous and relevant and that promote positive. relationships,Communication Partner Strategies, Communication is a two way process that depends on both partners For children with CCN teachers and paraeducators may play. special roles in successful communication Useful strategies to promote communication include. Strategy Rationale Example s, Provide access to AAC In order to learn e ective communication Whenever a child has an opportunity to communicate. skills and to participate children with make sure the child has access to AAC and that. CCN must have ongoing access to their appropriate vocabulary is available See an example at. AAC system http www dynavoxtech com success developmental. details aspx id 81, Develop motivating Children are more likely to communicate Children love books Shared reading activities are a great. activities and participate when activities are time to develop reading and communication skills. motivating See an example at, http aacliteracy psu edu StudentSuccess html Jackson. Provide many Frequent opportunities help children Participation in a general education curriculum provides. opportunities to learn to communicate in diverse settings many challenges but also includes many communication. communicate with a multitude of partners opportunities See an example at. http www prentrom com heroes joeycerrito, Wait for a response Children who use AAC may require more Providing an appropriate pace supports student. wait time to prepare a response involvement See an example at. http aacliteracy psu edu StudentSuccess html Gareth. Respond to Our responses to children s By recognizing and acknowledging all the di erent. communication communication attempts help them ways that a child communicates partners support the. attempts understand that communication is a development of new skills See an example at. powerful tool http aacliteracy psu edu SightWord html. scroll to the video,Frequently Asked Questions, I want my student to communicate using speech Does using AAC discourage the. development of speech, No studies have shown that the use of AAC actually improves speech development for children. who are able to physically produce speech Millar Light Schlosser 2006 In addition AAC. improves language development, My student can speak but she is often di cult for others to understand Is AAC still an. option for her, While AAC can be used by children who cannot speak at all it can be used also by those who. do speak but who have di culty being understood For example someone might use an AAC. system to clarify something she has tried to convey verbally. Does my student need to demonstrate certain skills before he can be a candidate for AAC. No anyone can use AAC Just as typical children are provided with speech models children. who require AAC need models of AAC to become competent communicators Children who. demonstrate intentional communication may make more rapid progress with an AAC system. but all children who require AAC technology should have access to AAC. My student just got a new computer based AAC system Should I encourage her to communicate using just this system. Students should have access to their AAC systems at all times but they should be encouraged to use whatever means are appropriate to. communicate their messages This may mean using sign language gestures or paper based systems in addition to more complex systems. Each individual should be encouraged to have a multimodal communication system. My student just began using AAC How many new symbols should I present at once. This will vary for each person but children should have access to more symbols than they will use at any one time Typically developing. children are exposed to language that they might not use right way It should be the same for children using AAC They should be provided. with the opportunity to use new vocabulary regularly. Selected WEB Resources, AAC Institute The AAC institute is a not for pro t organization dedicated to e ective communication for people. who rely on augmentative and alternative communication http www aacinstitute org. AAC RERC The Augmentative and Alternative Communication Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center. functions as a collaborative research group dedicated to the development of e ective AAC technology This Web site. includes a variety of research based information including handouts of presentations and webcasts. http aac rerc psu edu, ACOLUG The Augmentative Communication On Line Users Group is an Internet LISTSERV list that allows users. of augmentative communication and their families to communicate with one other and with professionals who are. interested in augmentative communication, http www temple edu instituteondisabilities programs aac acolug. AT AAC enABLES This Web site demonstrates how assistive technology and AAC enable individuals with. disabilities to participate in all aspects of life. http depts washington edu enables index htm, Augmentative Communication Inc The ACI is a Web site that supports two newsletters Augmentative. Communication News and Alternatively Speaking http www augcominc com newsletters. Early intervention for young children with autism cerebral palsy Down syndrome and other disabilities. This Web site provides guidelines for early intervention to maximize the language and communication development of. young children with special needs,http aackids psu edu. International Society for Augmentative and Alternative Communication ISAAC ISAAC works to improve the. life of every child and adult with CCN http www isaac online org en home shtml. Literacy instruction for individuals with autism cerebral palsy Down syndrome and other disabilities. This Web site provides guidelines for teaching literacy skills to learners with special needs especially learners with. CCN http aacliteracy psu edu,Selected Connecticut,AACResources. Contact Services, Area Cooperative Education Services ACES Vanessa Taragowski. 350 State Street North Haven CT 06473 Director of Pupil Services. 203 498 6800 www aces org vtaragowski aces org 203 498 6849. Capitol Region Education Center CREC Carolann Cormier MS ATP CCC SLP. 111 Charter Oak Avenue Hartford CT 06106 ccormier crec org 860 298 9079. 860 246 3304 www crec org Nicole Natale MS CCC SLP. nnatale crec org 860 298 9079, Connecticut Birth to Three System Linda Goodman Director. 460 Capitol Ave Hartford CT 06106 Linda Goodman ct gov. 860 418 6147 www birth23 org 860 418 6147, Connecticut Children s Medical Center Barbara E Brown Director. Connecticut Children s Hospital Speech Hearing Clinic 860 545 8587. 282 Washington Street Hartford CT 06106 Virginia McGoey Radshaw. 860 545 9000 www connecticutchildrens org MS CCC SLP 860 545 9000. Connecticut Tech Act Project Arlene Lugo ATP, 25 Sigourney Street 11th Floor Hartford CT 06106 Arlene Lugo ct gov. 860 424 4881 TTY 860 424 4839 860 424 4881,www cttechact com. Cooperative Education Services CES Laura Giovanetti MS ATP CCC SLP. 40 Lindeman Drive Trumbull CT 06610 giovanel ces k12 ct us 203 365 8891. 203 365 8800 www ces k12 ct us,EASTCONN Carol Magliocco Ph D ATP PT. 376 Hartford Turnpike Hampton CT 06247 cmagliocco eastconn org 860 455 0707. 860 455 0707 www eastconn org Amy Norton M Ed ATP,anorton eastconn org 860 455 0707. NEAT Marketplace Jennifer Baker MS P ATP,120 Holcomb Street Harford CT. 866 526 4492 or 860 286 3102,bakerj ciboakhill org 860 243 2869. www neatmarketplace org, State Education Resource Center SERC Smita Worah Ph D. 25 Industrial Park Road Middletown CT 06457 worah ctserc org 860 632 1485 ext 319. 860 632 1485 www ctserc org, Southern Connecticut State University Lisa Barber MS. 501 Crescent Street New Haven CT 06515 Barberl1 southernct edu 203 392 5954. 203 392 5200 www southernct edu, Evaluation On site technical Training and Collaboration Recycling Low interest Equipment Information. Assessment assistance consultation Professional with of loans for purchasing lending for parents. for implementation Development AAC vendors AAC devices AAC devices library. REFERENCES, Beukelman D Mirenda P 1998 Augmentative and Alternative Communication Management of Severe Communication. Disorders for Diverse Students Second Edition Paul H Brooks New York. Blackstone S 1993 AAC and Adolescence Augmentative Communication News 6 3 Retrieved June 9 2010 from. http www augcominc com newsletters index cfm newsletter 102 pdf. Blackstone S 2008 AAC in today s classrooms Augmentative Communication News 20 4 Retrieved June 9 2010 from. http www augcominc com newsletters index cfm newsletter 50 pdf. Blackstone S 2009 AAC technologies Augmentative Communication News 21 3 Retrieved June 9 2010 from. http www augcominc com newsletters index cfm newsletter 130 pdf. DynaVox Mayer Johnson Retrieved June 9 2010 from Published by. http www mayer johnson com State Education Resource Center. Marianne Kirner Ph D Executive Director, Early Intervention for Young Children with Autism Cerebral Palsy Down syndrome and Other Disabilities Retrieved June 9 2010 from. http aackids psu edu,Publications Unit, Literacy Instruction for Individuals with Autism Cerebral Palsy Down syndrome and Other Disabilities Retrieved June 9 2010 from Jeremy Bond Communication Publications Coordinator. http aacliteracy psu edu Jodylynn Talevi Media Technology Associate. Debbie Williams Education Services Specialist, Millar D Light J Schlosser R 2006 The impact of augmentative and alternative communication intervention on the. speech production of individuals with developmental disabilities a research review Journal of Speech Language and Hearing.
Lecture Number One May I welcome you all to this series of lectures. The large enrollment is quite a compliment to the Institute, and perhaps to the lecturer; but it also poses something of a problem. We shall not be able to handle this course on an informal or round-table basis. However, I should like to welcome as much discussion and as
In my opinion, you should read that book. If _____, I would read the book. 5. No talking in the library. You are not _____ 5 bodova 2.3. Fill in the gaps. A zoo in Tokyo 0 has a new attraction - four white tiger babies.
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