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Academic Standards for Science and Technology
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Academic Standards for Science and Technology,VII TABLE OF CONTENTS. Introduction VIII,THE ACADEMIC STANDARDS,Unifying Themes 3 1 Earth Sciences 3 5. A Systems A Land Forms and Processes,B Models B Resources. C Patterns C Meteorology,D Scale D Hydrology and Oceanography. Inquiry and Design 3 2 Technology Education 3 6,A Nature of Scientific Knowledge.
A Biotechnology,B Process Knowledge B Information Technology. C Scientific Method Construction Manufacturing and Transportation. C Physical Technologies,D Problem Solving in Technology. Biological Sciences 3 3 Technological Devices 3 7,A Living Forms. B Structure and Function B Instruments,C Inheritance C Computer Operations. D Evolution D Computer Software,Physical Science Chemistry and Physics 3 4.
E Computer,Science Communication,Technology Systems. and Human Endeavors 3 8,B Energy A Constraints,C Consequences and Impacts. C Forces and Motion B Meeting Human Needs,D Astronomy Glossary IX. 22 Pa Code Ch 4 Appendix B Final Form January 5 2002. Academic Standards for Science and Technology,VIII INTRODUCTION. This document describes what students should know and be able to do in the following eight areas. 3 1 Unifying Themes of Science 3 5 Earth Sciences,3 2 Inquiry and Design 3 6 Technology Education.
3 3 Biological Sciences 3 7 Technological Devices, 3 4 Physical Science Chemistry 3 8 Science Technology and Human Endeavors. and Physics, These standards describe what students should know and be able to do by the end of fourth seventh tenth and twelfth grade In. addition these standards reflect the increasing complexity and sophistication that students are expected to achieve as they progress. through school, This document avoids repetition making an obvious progression across grade levels less explicit Teachers shall expect that students. know and can apply the concepts and skills expressed at the preceding level Consequently previous learning is reinforced but not. Standards are arranged by categories for example 3 5 Earth Science Under each category are standard statements that are preceded. by a capital letter for example in 3 1 Unifying Themes grade 10 B Describe concepts of models as a way to predict and understand. science and technology Following the standard statements are bulleted standard descriptors which explain the nature and scope of. the standard Descriptors specify the nature of the standard and the level of complexity needed in meeting that standard in a proficient. manner Descriptors serve to benchmark the standard statement Curriculum instruction and assessment should focus on meeting the. standard statement Technology Education computer applications and science are separate curricular areas Meeting standards. should be approached as a collaborative effort among all curricular areas. 22 Pa Code Ch 4 Appendix B Final Form January 5 2002. Academic Standards for Science and Technology, The following descriptors explain the intent of each standard category. 3 1 Unifying Themes Unifying themes of science and technology provide big ideas that integrate with significant. concepts There are only a few fundamental concepts and processes that form the framework. upon which science and technology knowledges are organized motion and forces energy. structure of matter change over time and machines These themes create the context through. which the content of the disciplines can be taught and are emphasized in each standard. 3 2 Inquiry and Design The nature of science and technology is characterized by applying process knowledge that. enables students to become independent learners These skills include observing classifying. inferring predicting measuring computing estimating communicating using space time. relationships defining operationally raising questions formulating hypotheses testing and. experimenting designing controlled experiments recognizing variables manipulating variables. interpreting data formulating models designing models and producing solutions Everyone can. use them to solve real life problems These process skills are developed across the grade levels. and differ in the degree of sophistication quantitative nature and application to the content. 3 3 Biological Sciences Biology concerns living things their appearance different types of life the scope of their. similarities and differences where they live and how they live Living things are made of the. same components as all other matter involve the same kinds of transformations of energy and. move using the same basic kinds of forces as described in chemistry and physics standards. Through the study of the diversity of life students learn to understand how life has changed over. a long period of time This great variety of life forms continues to change even today as genetic. instructions within cells are passed from generation to generation yet the amazing integrity of. most species remain, 3 4 Physical Science Physics and chemistry involve the study of objects and.
Chemistry and Physics their properties Students examine changes to materials during mixing freezing heating and. dissolving and then learn how to observe and measure results In chemistry students study the. relationship between matter atomic structure and its activity Laboratory investigations of. the properties of substances and their changes through a range of chemical interactions provide a. basis for students to understand atomic theory and a variety of reaction types and their. 22 Pa Code Ch 4 Appendix B Final Form January 5 2002. Academic Standards for Science and Technology, applications in business agriculture and medicine Physics deepens the understanding of the. structure and properties of materials and includes atoms waves light electricity magnetism and. the role of energy forces and motion, 3 5 Earth Sciences The dynamics of earth science include the studies of forces of nature that build the earth and. wear down the earth The understanding of these concepts uses principles from physical. sciences geography and mathematics, 3 6 Technology Education Technology education is the use of accumulated knowledge to process resources to meet human. needs and improve the quality of life Students develop the ability to select and correctly use. materials tools techniques and processes to answer questions understand explanations and. solve problems encountered in real life situations These overriding themes require students to. design create use evaluate and modify systems of Biotechnologies Information Technologies. and Physical Technologies, 3 7 Technological Devices Students use tools to observe measure move and make things New technological tools and. techniques make it possible to enact far reaching changes in our world Technology enhances the. students abilities to identify problems and determine solutions Computers play an integral role. in every day life by extending our abilities to collect analyze and communicate information and. 3 8 Science Technology and Scientific knowledge and societal needs often create a demand for new technology Conversely. Human Endeavors new technology advances scientific knowledge Both influence society through the impact of. their products and processes, 22 Pa Code Ch 4 Appendix B Final Form January 5 2002.
Academic Standards for Science and Technology, What Is Science Any study of science includes the search for understanding the natural world and facts principles theories and. laws that have been verified by the scientific community and are used to explain and predict natural phenomena and events. Acquiring scientific knowledge involves constructing hypotheses using observation and knowledge in the content area in order to. formulate useful questions that provoke scientific inquiry As a result of repeated rigorous testing over time and applying multiple. perspectives to a problem consistent information emerges A theory describes this verifiable event or phenomena Theories are. powerful elements in science and are used to predict other events As theories lose their ability to predict they are modified. expanded or generalized or incorporated into a broader theory. Knowledge of what science is incorporates carefully developed and integrated components. Nature of science the ways in which scientists search for answers to questions and explanations of observations about. the natural world includes process knowledge of observing classifying inferring predicting measuring hypothesizing. experimenting and interpreting data, Unifying themes of science concepts generalizations and principles that result from and lead to inquiry. Knowledge facts principles theories and laws verifiable through scientific inquiry by the world community of. scientists includes physics chemistry earth science and biological sciences. Inquiry an intellectual process of logic that includes verification of answers to questions about and explanations for. natural objects events and phenomena, Process skills Recognition by students how knowledge is acquired and applied in science by observing classifying. inferring predicting measuring computing estimating communicating using space time relationships defining. operationally formulating hypotheses testing and experimenting designing controlled experiments recognizing variables. manipulating variables interpreting data formulating models designing models and producing solutions. Problem solving application of concepts to problems of human adaptation to the environment that often leads to. recognition of new problems has social implications and leads to personal decision making and action a process which. forms the link for interactions between scientific and technological results or findings involves operational definitions. recognizing variables formulating models and asking questions. Scientific thinking the disposition to suspend judgment not make decisions and not take action until results. explanations or answers have been tested and verified with information. 22 Pa Code Ch 4 Appendix B Final Form January 5 2002. Academic Standards for Science and Technology, What Is Technology Education It is the means by which we teach technology Technology is a body of knowledge separate from. but related to the sciences with specific content curriculum and specific certification requirements Technology is the application of. tools materials processes and systems by humans to solve problems and provide benefits to humankind We use technology in an. attempt to improve our environment These improvements may relate to survival needs e g food shelter defense or they may relate. to human aspirations e g knowledge art control They can include unexpected benefits unexpected costs and unexpected risks. Technology education involves a broad spectrum of knowledge and activities Effective technology education combines knowledge. of content process and skills to provide students with a holistic approach to learning Technology education offers unique. opportunities to apply numerous academic concepts through practical hands on applications Instructional technology on the other. hand deals specifically with use of computers and different software to solve problems and communicate effectively Knowledge of. content process and skills should be used together to effectively engage students and promote a complete understanding of the. sciences related technologies and their interrelationship The relationship between science and technology is one where science builds. principles or theories and technology provides the practical application of those principles or theories. Knowledge of content process and skills in technology involves learning processes that include these components. Methods of designing and developing solutions, Standards for selecting and using appropriate materials tools and processes.
Experimental and design specifications for testing and evaluating solutions. Criteria for judging the performance and impact of the solutions. Evaluating the impact of modifying a system to improve performance. 22 Pa Code Ch 4 Appendix B Final Form January 5 2002. Academic Standards for Science and Technology, Technology education can be divided into three main systems that include biotechnological informational and physical technologies. Biotechnological Systems Informational Systems Physical Systems. Bioconversion Computer Aided Drafting Design CADD Automation Robotics. Bioprocessing Drafting Design Computer Aided and Integrated. Environment Desktop Publishing Manufacturing CAM CIM. Ergonomics Electronic Communications, Engineering Design Systems Engineering Design Systems Electronic Circuits Control Systems. Research and Development Graphic Communications Energy Systems. Communications Systems Architecture and Community Planning. Multimedia Technology Engineering Design Systems, Networking Systems Enterprise Organization Operation. Research and Development, Video and Television Production Material Processes. Construction, World Wide Web Design Publishing Research and Development.
Transportation,Manufacturing, 22 Pa Code Ch 4 Appendix B Final Form January 5 2002. Academic Standards for Science and Technology,3 1 Unifying Themes. 3 1 4 GRADE 4 3 1 7 GRADE 7 3 1 10 GRADE 10 3 1 12 GRADE 12. Pennsylvania s public schools shall teach challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge. and skills needed to, A Know that natural and human made A Explain the parts of a simple system and A Discriminate among the concepts of A Apply concepts of systems subsystems. objects are made up of parts their relationship to each other systems subsystems feedback and feedback and control to solve complex. Identify and describe what parts make Describe a system as a group of control in solving technological problems technological problems. up a system related parts that work together to Identify the function of subsystems Apply knowledge of control. Identify system parts that are natural achieve a desired result within a larger system e g role of systems concept by designing and. and human made e g ball point pen e g digestive system thermostat in an engine pressure modeling control systems that solve. simple electrical circuits plant Explain the importance of order in a switch specific problems. anatomy system Describe the interrelationships among Apply systems analysis to predict. Describe the purpose of analyzing Distinguish between system inputs inputs processes outputs feedback results. systems system processes and system outputs and control in specific systems Analyze and describe the function. Know that technologies include Distinguish between open loop and Explain the concept of system interaction and relationship among. physical technology systems closed loop systems redesign and apply it to improve subsystems and the system itself. e g construction manufacturing Apply systems analysis to solve technological systems Compare and contrast several. transportation informational problems Apply the universal systems model to systems that could be applied to. systems and biochemical related illustrate specific solutions and solve a single problem. systems troubleshoot specific problems Evaluate the causes of a system s. Analyze and describe the inefficiency,effectiveness of systems to solve. specific problems, B Know models as useful simplifications of B Describe the use of models as an B Describe concepts of models as a way to B Apply concepts of models as a method to.
objects or processes application of scientific or technological predict and understand science and predict and understand science and. Identify different types of models concepts technology technology. Identify and apply models as tools Identify and describe different types Distinguish between different types of Evaluate technological processes by. for prediction and insight of models and their functions models and modeling techniques and collecting data and applying. Apply appropriate simple modeling Apply models to predict specific apply their appropriate use in specific mathematical models e g process. tools and techniques results and observations applications e g kinetic gas theory control. Identify theories that serve as models e g population growth effects of DNA Apply knowledge of complex. e g molecules infectious organisms Examine the advantages of using physical models to interpret data. models to demonstrate processes and and apply mathematical models. outcomes e g blue print analysis,structural stability. 22 Pa Code Ch 4 Appendix B Final Form January 5 2002. Academic Standards for Science and Technology, Explain systems by outlining a Apply mathematical models to Appraise the importance of. system s relevant parts and its science and technology computer models in interpreting. purpose and or designing a model science and technological systems. that illustrates its function, C Illustrate patterns that regularly occur and C Identify patterns as repeated processes or C Apply patterns as repeated processes or C Assess and apply patterns in science and. reoccur in nature recurring elements in science and recurring elements in science and technology. Identify observable patterns technology technology Assess and apply recurring patterns. e g growth patterns in plants Identify different forms of patterns Examine and describe recurring in natural and technological. crystal shapes in minerals climate and use them to group and classify patterns that form the basis of systems. structural patterns in bird feathers specific objects biological classification chemical Compare and contrast structure and. Use knowledge of natural patterns to Identify repeating structure patterns periodicity geological order and function relationships as they relate. predict next occurrences e g Identify and describe patterns that astronomical order to patterns. seasons leaf patterns lunar phases occur in physical systems Examine and describe stationary Assess patterns in nature using. e g construction manufacturing physical patterns mathematical formulas. transportation informational Examine and describe physical. systems and biochemical related patterns in motion. D Know that scale is an important attribute D Explain scale as a way of relating D Apply scale as a way of relating concepts D Analyze scale as a way of relating. of natural and human made objects concepts and ideas to one another by and ideas to one another by some concepts and ideas to one another by. events and phenomena some measure measure some measure. Identify the use of scale as it relates Apply various applications of size Apply dimensional analysis and scale Compare and contrast various forms. to the measurement of distance and dimensions of scale to scientific as a ratio of dimensional analysis. volume and mass mathematical and technological Convert one scale to another Assess the use of several units of. Describe scale as a ratio e g map applications measurement to the same problem. scales Describe scale as a form of ratio and Analyze and apply appropriate. Explain the importance of scale in apply to a life situation measurement scales when collecting. producing models and apply it to a data, E Recognize change in natural and physical E Identify change as a variable in E Describe patterns of change in nature E Evaluate change in nature physical. systems describing natural and physical systems physical and man made systems systems and man made systems. Recognize change as fundamental to Describe fundamental science and Describe how fundamental science Evaluate fundamental science and. science and technology concepts technology concepts that could solve and technology concepts are used to technology concepts and their. Examine and explain change by practical problems solve practical problems e g development over time e g DNA. using time and measurement Explain how ratio is used to describe momentum Newton s laws of cellular respiration unified field. Describe relative motion change universal gravitation tectonics theory energy measurement. conservation of mass and energy automation, 22 Pa Code Ch 4 Appendix B Final Form January 5 2002.
Academic Standards for Science and Technology, Describe the change to objects Describe the effect of making a cell theory theory of evolution miniaturization Copernican and. caused by heat cold light or change in one part of a system on atomic theory theory of relativity Ptolemaic universe theories. chemicals the system as a whole Pasteur s germ theory relativity Analyze how models systems and. heliocentric theory gas laws technologies have changed over. feedback systems time e g germ theory theory of, Recognize that stable systems often evolution solar system cause of. involve underlying dynamic changes fire, e g a chemical reaction at Explain how correlation of variables. equilibrium has molecules reforming does not necessarily imply. continuously causation, Describe the effects of error in Evaluate the patterns of change. measurements within a technology e g changes, Describe changes to matter caused by in engineering in the automotive.
heat cold light or chemicals using a industry,rate function. 22 Pa Code Ch 4 Appendix B Final Form January 5 2002. Academic Standards for Science and Technology,3 2 Inquiry and Design. 3 2 4 GRADE 4 3 2 7 GRADE 7 3 2 10 GRADE 10 3 2 12 GRADE 12. Pennsylvania s public schools shall teach challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge. and skills needed to, A Identify and use the nature of scientific A Explain and apply scientific and A Apply knowledge and understanding A Evaluate the nature of scientific and. and technological knowledge technological knowledge about the nature of scientific and technological knowledge. Distinguish between a scientific fact Distinguish between a scientific technological knowledge Know and use the ongoing. and a belief theory and a belief Compare and contrast scientific scientific processes to continually. Provide clear explanations that Answer What if questions based theories and beliefs improve and better understand how. account for observations and on observation inference or prior Know that science uses both direct things work. results knowledge or experience and indirect observation means to Critically evaluate the status of. Relate how new information can Explain how skepticism about an study the world and the universe existing theories e g germ theory. change existing perceptions accepted scientific explanation led to Integrate new information into of disease wave theory of light. a new understanding existing theories and explain implied classification of subatomic. Explain how new information may results particles theory of evolution. change existing theories and practice epidemiology of aids. B Apply process knowledge and organize,scientific and technological phenomena. in varied ways B Evaluate experimental information for. Describe materials using precise appropriateness and adherence to. B Describe objects in the world using the B Apply process knowledge to make and quantitative and qualitative skills relevant science processes. five senses interpret observations based on observations Evaluate experimental data. Recognize observational descriptors Measure materials using a variety of Develop appropriate scientific correctly within experimental. from each of the five senses scales experiments raising questions limits. e g see blue feel rough Describe relationships by making formulating hypotheses testing Judge that conclusions are. Use observations to develop a inferences and predictions controlled experiments recognizing consistent and logical with. descriptive vocabulary Communicate use space time variables manipulating variables experimental conditions. relationships define operationally interpreting data and producing Interpret results of experimental. raise questions formulate solutions research to predict new information. hypotheses test and experiment Use process skills to make inferences or improve a solution. Design controlled experiments and predictions using collected. recognize variables and manipulate information and to communicate. variables using space time relationships, Interpret data formulate models defining operationally.
design models and produce, 22 Pa Code Ch 4 Appendix B Final Form January 5 2002. Academic Standards for Science and Technology,C Apply the elements of scientific inquiry. to solve problems C Apply the elements of scientific inquiry. Generate questions about objects to solve multi step problems. C Recognize and use the elements of C Identify and use the elements of organisms and or events that can be Generate questions about objects. scientific inquiry to solve problems scientific inquiry to solve problems answered through scientific organisms and or events that can be. Generate questions about objects Generate questions about objects investigations answered through scientific. organisms and or events that can be organisms and or events that can be Evaluate the appropriateness of investigations. answered through scientific answered through scientific questions Evaluate the appropriateness of. investigations investigations Design an investigation with questions. Design an investigation Evaluate the appropriateness of adequate control and limited Design an investigation with. Conduct an experiment questions variables to investigate a question adequate control and limited. State a conclusion that is consistent Design an investigation with limited Conduct a multiple step experiment variables to investigate a question. with the information variables to investigate a question Organize experimental information Organize experimental information. Conduct a two part experiment using a variety of analytic methods using analytic and descriptive. Judge the significance of Judge the significance of techniques. experimental information in experimental information in Evaluate the significance of. answering the question answering the question experimental information in. Communicate appropriate Suggest additional steps that might answering the question. conclusions from the experiment be done experimentally Project additional questions from a. research study that could be studied,D Identify and apply the technological. design process to solve problems D Analyze and use the technological. Examine the problem rank all design process to solve problems. D Recognize and use the technological D Know and use the technological design necessary information and all Assess all aspects of the problem. design process to solve problems process to solve problems questions that must be answered prioritize the necessary information. Recognize and explain basic Define different types of problems Propose and analyze a solution and formulate questions that must. problems Define all aspects of the problem Implement the solution be answered. Identify possible solutions and their necessary information and questions Evaluate the solution test redesign Propose develop and appraise the. course of action that must be answered and improve as necessary best solution and develop. Try a solution Propose the best solution Communicate the process and alternative solutions. Describe the solution identify its Design and propose alternative evaluate and present the impacts of Implement and assess the solution. impacts and modify if necessary methods to achieve solutions the solution Evaluate and assess the solution. Show the steps taken and the Apply a solution redesign and improve as necessary. results Explain the results present Communicate and assess the. improvements identify and infer the process and evaluate and present the. impacts of the solution impacts of the solution, 22 Pa Code Ch 4 Appendix B Final Form January 5 2002. Academic Standards for Science and Technology,3 3 Biological Sciences.
3 3 4 GRADE 4 3 3 7 GRADE 7 3 3 10 GRADE 10 3 3 12 GRADE 12. Pennsylvania s public schools shall teach challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge. and skills needed to, A Know the similarities and differences of A Describe the similarities and differences A Explain the structural and functional A Explain the relationship between. living things that characterize diverse living things similarities and differences found structure and function at all levels of. Identify life processes of living Describe how the structures of among living things organization. things e g growth digestion react living things help them function in Identify and characterize major life Identify and explain interactions. to environment unique ways forms according to their placement among organisms e g mutually. Know that some organisms have Explain how to use a dichotomous in existing classification groups beneficial harmful relationships. similar external characteristics key to identify plants and animals Explain the relationship between Explain and analyze the relationship. e g anatomical characteristics Account for adaptations among structure and function at the between structure and function at the. appendages type of covering body organisms that live in a particular molecular and cellular levels molecular cellular and organ system. segments and that similarities and environment Describe organizing schemes of level. differences are related to classification keys Describe and explain structural and. environmental habitat Identify and characterize major life functional relationships in each of. Describe basic needs of plants and forms by kingdom phyla class and the five or six kingdoms. animals order Explain significant biological,diversity found in each of the. B Know that living things are made up of, parts that have specific functions B Describe the cell as the basic structural B Describe and explain the chemical and B Analyze the chemical and structural basis. Identify examples of unicellular and and functional unit of living things structural basis of living organisms of living organisms. multicellular organisms Identify the levels of organization Describe the relationship between the Identify and describe factors affecting. Determine how different parts of a from cell to organism structure of organic molecules and metabolic function e g temperature. living thing work together to make Compare life processes at the the function they serve in living acidity hormones. the organism function organism level with life processes at organisms Evaluate metabolic activities using. the cell level Identify the specialized structures and experimental knowledge of enzymes. Explain that cells and organisms regions of the cell and the functions Evaluate relationships between. have particular structures that of each structure and functions of different. underlie their functions Explain how cells store and use anatomical parts given their. Describe and distinguish among cell information to guide their functions structure. cycles reproductive cycles and life Explain cell functions and processes Describe potential impact of genome. cycles in terms of chemical reactions and research on the biochemistry and. Explain disease effects on structures energy changes physiology of life. or functions of an organism, 22 Pa Code Ch 4 Appendix B Final Form January 5 2002. Academic Standards for Science and Technology,C Know that characteristics are inherited.
and thus offspring closely resemble C Know that every organism has a set of C Describe how genetic information is C Explain gene inheritance and expression. their parents genetic instructions that determines its inherited and expressed at the molecular level. Identify characteristics for animal inherited traits Compare and contrast the function Analyze gene expression at the. and plant survival in different Identify and explain inheritable of mitosis and meiosis molecular level. climates characteristics Describe mutations effects on a Describe the roles of nucleic acids in. identify physical characteristics that Identify that the gene is the basic trait s expression cellular reproduction and protein. appear in both parents and offspring unit of inheritance Distinguish different reproductive synthesis. and differ between families strains Identify basic patterns of inheritance patterns in living things Describe genetic engineering. or species e g dominance recessive co e g budding spores fission techniques applications and impacts. dominance Compare random and selective Explain birth defects from the. Describe how traits are inherited breeding practices and their results standpoint of embryological. Distinguish how different living e g antibiotic resistant bacteria development and or changes in. things reproduce e g vegetative Explain the relationship among genetic makeup. budding sexual DNA genes and chromosomes, recognize that mutations can alter a Explain different types of. gene inheritance e g multiple allele, Describe how selective breeding sex influenced traits D Analyze the theory of evolution. D Identify changes in living things over natural selection and genetic Describe the role of DNA in protein Examine human history by describing. time technologies can change genetic synthesis as it relates to gene the progression from early hominids. Compare extinct life forms with makeup of organisms expression to modern humans. living organisms apply the concept of natural selection. D Explain basic concepts of natural as a central concept in illustrating. selection D Explain the mechanisms of the theory of evolution theory. Identify adaptations that allow evolution, organisms to survive in their analyze data from fossil records. environment similarities in anatomy and, Describe how an environmental physiology embryological studies. change can affect the survival of and DNA studies that are relevant to. organisms and entire species the theory of evolution. know that differences in individuals Explain the role of mutations and. of the same species may give some gene recombination in changing a. advantage in surviving and population of organisms. reproducing Compare modern day descendants of, recognize that populations of extinct species and propose possible.
organisms can increase rapidly scientific accounts for their present. Describe the role that fossils play in appearance,studying the past describe the factors. Explain how biologic extinction is a e g isolation. natural process differential, 22 Pa Code Ch 4 Appendix B Final Form January 5 2002.


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