Academic Resource Center Illinois Institute Of Technology-Books Pdf

Academic Resource Center Illinois Institute of Technology
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Introduction, Oxidation reduction reactions are also known. as redox reactions, Def Redox reactions describe all chemical. reactions in which there is a net change in, atomic charge. It is a class of reactions that include, formation of a compound from its elements. all combustion reactions, reactions that generate electricity.
reactions that produce cellular energy, Terminology. The key idea is the net movement of electrons, from one reactant to the other. Oxidation is the loss of electrons, Reduction is the gain of electrons. Oxidizing agent is the species doing the, Reducing agent is the species doing the. Redox Illustration, Oxidation electron loss by H2, Reduction electron gain by F2.
Oxidized 2e transfer Reduced, Reducing agent F2 Oxidizing agent. Oxidation Number, Oxidation number O N is also known as oxidation. It is defined as the charge the atom would have if. electrons were not shared but were transferred, completely. For a binary ionic compound the O N is equivalent to. the ionic charge, For covalent compounds or polyatomic ions the O N. is less obvious and can be determined by a given set. Rules for Assigning an Oxidation Number, General Rules.
1 For an atom in its elemental form Na O2 O N 0, 2 For a monatomic ion O N ion charge. 3 The sum of O N values for the atoms in a molecule. or formula unit of a compound equals to zero, equals to the ion s charge if it is a polyatomic ion. Rules for Specific Atoms or Periodic Table Groups, 1 For Group 1A 1 O N 1 in all compounds. 2 For Group 2A 2 O N 2 in all compounds, 3 For hydrogen O N 1 in combination with nonmetals. O N 1 in combination with metals and, 4 For fluorine O N 1 in all compounds.
5 For oxygen O N 1 in peroxides, O N 2 in all other compounds except. 6 For Group 7A 17 O N 1 in combination with, metals nonmetals except O and. other halogens lower in the group, Determine the oxidation number O N of. each element in these compounds, c NaHSO4 aq, Solution to Example 1. Simply apply the rules for assigning an oxidation, number as described earlier.
a CaO s d CaCO3 s, 1 5 2 C 0 2 3 2 4, b KNO3 s 0, N 0 1 3 2 5 e N2 g. 1 1 6 2 1 2, c NaHSO4 aq f H2O l, S 0 1 1 4 2 5, Identify the oxidizing agent and reducing agent. in each of the following, a 2H2 g O2 g 2H2O g, b Cu s 4HNO3 aq Cu NO3 2 aq 2NO2 g. Solution to Example 2, Assign oxidation numbers and compare. Oxidation is represented by an increase in oxidation number. Reduction is represented by a decrease in oxidation number. a 2H2 g O2 g 2H2O g, O2 was reduced O N of O 0 2 O2 is the oxidizing agent.
H2 was oxidized O N of H 0 1 H2 is the reducing agent. 0 1 5 2 2 5 2 4 2 1 2, b Cu 4HNO3 Cu NO3 2 2NO2 2H2O. Cu was oxidized O N of Cu 0 2 Cu is the reducing agent. HNO3 was reduced O N of N 5 4 HNO3 is the oxidizing agent. Balancing Redox Equations, When balancing redox reactions make sure. that the number of electrons lost by the, reducing agent equals the number of. electrons gained by the oxidizing agent, Two methods can be used. 1 Oxidation number method, 2 Half reaction method, Balancing Redox Equations.
Method 1 Oxidation number method, 1 Assign oxidation numbers to all elements in the reaction. 2 From the changes in O N identify the oxidized and. reduced species, 3 Compute the number of electrons lost in the oxidation. and gained in the reduction from the O N changes, 4 Multiply one or both of these numbers by appropriate. factors to make the electrons lost equal the electrons. gained and use the factors as balancing coefficients. 5 Complete the balancing by inspection adding states of. Use the oxidation number method to balance, the following equations. a Al s H2SO4 aq Al2 SO4 3 aq H2 g, b PbS s O2 g PbO s SO2 g.
Part a Solution to Example 3, Step 1 Assign oxidation numbers to all. 0 1 6 2 3 6 2 0, Al s H2SO4 aq Al2 SO4 3 aq H2 g, Step 2 Identify oxidized and reduced species. Al was oxidized O N of Al 0 3, H2SO4 was reduced O N of H 1 0. Step 3 Compute e lost and e gained, In the oxidation 3e were lost from Al. Academic Resource Center Introduction Oxidation reduction reactions are also known as redox reactions Def Redox reactions describe all chemical reactions in which there is a net change in atomic charge It is a class of reactions that include formation of a compound from its elements all combustion reactions reactions that generate electricity reactions that produce

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