Abcd Fpv V3 2015 For Web Final 170915 Abcdcatsvets Org-Books Pdf

ABCD FPV V3 2015 for web final 170915 abcdcatsvets org
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During the evolution from FPV to CPV 2 with its various antigenic types neutralizing. epitopes have been affected such that cross neutralization by FPV antisera is. markedly lower against the new viruses Truyen and Parrish 2013. Epidemiology, FPV is a non enveloped single stranded DNA virus which is highly resistant to. physical factors and chemical substances In contaminated environments it may. remain infectious for weeks or even months Uttenthal et al 1999 Diseased. carnivores shed virus at high titres up to 109 TCID50 per gram of faeces and virus. quickly accumulates in affected shelters and catteries As it is highly contagious. susceptible animals may still become infected even after a seemingly thorough. disinfection of the premises It is therefore recommended that only successfully. vaccinated kittens and cats should enter such an environment. Although few data on FPV prevalence are available particularly breeding catteries. and rescue shelters are at risk Addie et al 1998 Cave et al 2002. Persistent infections and persistent viral shedding are rare using PCR healthy cats. have been found positive in faeces over weeks it is unknown whether this is of. epidemiological significance Jakel et al 2012 Interestingly CPV 2 viruses could. be isolated from feces of healthy cats in the UK in two shelters It is unclear if this is. of epidemiological importance Clegg et al 2012, After intrauterine infection FPV antigen is present in the cerebellum of kittens for. weeks Csiza et al 1971, The analysis of parvovirus sequences recovered from wild carnivores pumas. coyotes raccoons and others revealed a broad range of virus types This. implicates the infection of predators by their prey if the latter was infected with. parvoviruses and thus a new route of infection Allison et al 2013. ABCD feline panleukopenia V3 2015,Pathogenesis, FPV causes a systemic infection The virus is transmitted via the faecal oral route. initially replicates in tissues of the oropharynx and is then distributed via cell free. viraemia to virtually all tissues Replication of the parvoviral single stranded DNA. requires cells in the S phase of division and is therefore restricted to mitotically active. tissues Parvoviruses require cellular DNA polymerases to synthesize the. complementary DNA strand which is the first step in replication and a prerequisite for. transcription, The virus infects lymphoid tissues where it may cause cellular depletion and a.
functional immunosuppression Lymphopenia may arise as a result of. lymphocytolysis but also indirectly from lymphocyte emigration into tissues The. bone marrow is affected and virus replication has been described in early progenitor. cells with dramatic effects on virtually all myeloid cell populations Parrish 1995. Panleukopenia i e the deficiency of all white cell populations is the result Truyen. and Parrish 2000, The hallmark of FPV replication is the shortening of the intestinal villi due to a. sometimes complete loss of epithelial cells in the gut Parrish 2006 The virus. replicates in the rapidly dividing cells in the crypts of Lieberk hn which impairs. regeneration of the epithelium and results in the lesions described above Their. severity correlates with the epithelial turnover rate and co infection with enteric. viruses like feline coronavirus may enhance the severity of disease. Intrauterine transmission or perinatal infection may affect central nervous system. development Feline ataxia syndrome results from an impaired development of the. cerebellum due to lytic infection of the Purkinje cells in the kitten Csiza et al 1971. Kilham et al 1971 An FPV like virus has been described as the cause of. reproductive disorders in pregnant foxes Veijalainen and Smeds 1988. Foetal infection may induce immunological tolerance so that kittens continue. shedding virus for extended periods of time Pedersen 1987. Foetuses infected between the 35th and 45th days of gestation have depressed T. lymphocyte mediated immunity In adult cats infection leads to a transient decrease. in the immune response neutrophil counts decrease severely and lymphocytes. ABCD feline panleukopenia V3 2015, disappear from the circulation lymph nodes bone marrow and thymus Pedersen. 1987 Ikeda et al 1998, Table 1 Pathological consequences and clinical manifestations of FPV. Affected cells Consequences Clinical manifestation. Intestinal crypt epithelium Villous collapse enteritis Diarrhoea. Lymph node thymus Germinal centre depletion Lymphopenia. apoptosis of lymphocytes,thymic atrophy, Bone marrow Stem cell depletion Neutropenia later also. thrombocytopenia and,Most cells in the foetus Foetal death Abortion.
Developing cerebellum Cerebellar hypoplasia Cerebellar ataxia. Adapted from Chandler Feline Medicine and Therapeutics 3rd Ed 2004. Passive immunity acquired via colostrum, In the kitten maternal antibodies have a biological half life of about ten days Scott et. al 1970 Pedersen 1987 When antibodies have waned below a titre of 40 to 80. as measured by haemagglutination inhibition they do not reliably protect against. infection but may interfere with active immunisation Most cats have maternal. antibodies at protective titres until weeks 6 to 8 Later immunisations are effective. Dawson et al 2001 which makes ABCD recommend vaccinations at 15 to 16. weeks of age as explained in the present Guidelines. ABCD feline panleukopenia V3 2015, Figure 1 Graph illustrating the immunity gap Thiry 2002c In this example. the critical period is between week 8 and 12 post natum. The endotheliochorial placentation of the cat restricts maternofetal passage of. solutes and IgG can only cross the placenta barrier in the last trimester of gestation. This immunoglobulin transfer accounts for 10 of the kitten s maternal immunity. Therefore ingesting sufficient colostrum is essential for acquiring protective levels of. neutralising antibodies from the queen Maximum absorption is around the 8th hour of. life Later the kitten s intestinal cells are replaced by new epithelium that no longer. absorbs and transports antibodies, Kitten serum antibody titres are generally about half of those of the dam Their levels. depend on the individual colostrum intake which explains the large variations. between littermates Casseleux and Fontaine 2006 The titres decrease in the first. weeks of life by decay and by dilution in the growing organism In analogy with. ABCD feline panleukopenia V3 2015, canine parvovirus an immunity gap around 6 to 10 weeks of age is expected to exist. when antibody levels are too low to protect against natural infection but still high. enough to interfere with vaccination Scott et al 1970 Dawson et al 2001 Thiry. Active immune response against FPV, Antibodies play an important role in the immune response to FPV Maternally derived.
antibodies MDA efficiently protect kittens from fatal infection This passively. acquired immunity is later replaced by an active immune response obtained by. vaccination or as a consequence of a natural infection. Acquired immunity is solid and long lasting Thiry 2002a and can be induced by. both inactivated and modified live virus MLV vaccines FPV antiserum can be used. for passive immunisation when unvaccinated animals are likely to be exposed to. virus before the initiation of a vaccine induced active response Barlough et al. Parvoviruses induce a range of immune responses including T helper CD4. lymphocytes and CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes Parvovirus uptake occurs by. phagocytosis but also by other non phagocytic mechanisms such as fluid pinocytosis. or receptor mediated endocytosis Sedlik et al 2000. Diagnosis of feline parvovirus infection, Feline panleukopenia has been diagnosed by virus isolation from blood or faeces in. cultures of CRFK or Mya 1 cells Miyazawa et al 1999 and by the demonstration of. haemagglutination of porcine erythrocytes Goto 1975 However these methods. are now rarely used, In practice FPV antigen detection in faeces is usually carried out using commercially. available latex agglutination or immunochromatographic tests Veijalainen et al. 1986 Addie et al 1998 These tests have a good specificity and acceptable. sensitivity when compared to reference methods Neuerer et al 2008 Schmitz et al. 2009 Tests marketed for the detection of FPV antigen as well as those for detecting. canine parvovirus antigen may be used to diagnose FPV in faeces. ABCD feline panleukopenia V3 2015, Diagnosis by electron microscopy has lost its importance due to more rapid and. automated alternatives Specialised laboratories offer PCR based test on whole. blood or faeces Whole blood is recommended from cats without diarrhoea or when. no faecal samples are available Schunck et al 1995 Ryser Degiorgis et al 2005. By PCR healthy cats have tested positive in faeces over weeks but the. epidemiological significance of this finding is unknown Clinicians need to bear this in. mind when interpreting diagnostic data, The analytical sensitivity of the antigen tests can be compromised by antibodies. bound to viral epitopes which render them inaccessible to the monoclonal antibodies. in the test kit Lutz et al 1995, Antibodies to FPV can be detected by haemagglutination inhibition HI ELISA.
Fiscus et al 1985 or indirect immunofluorescence tests Hofmann Lehmann et al. 1996 However their use is of limited value because neither differentiates between. infection and vaccination induced antibodies Fiscus et al 1985 However the. mere presence of antibodies is taken as proof of protection against panleukopenia. under field conditions whether these have been obtained through active. immunization or after infection Lappin et al 2002 Passively acquired antibodies. maternal or from hyperimmune serum are considered protective at HI titres of 80 or. higher in analogy to CPV infections in dogs,Feline panleukopenia disease management. A cat showing clinical signs of feline panleukopenia substantiated by laboratory. evidence should be kept in isolation Supportive therapy and good nursing care. significantly decrease mortality Restoration of fluid and electrolyte and of the acid. base balance preferably by intravenous drip is most important in symptomatic. As the gut barrier often is destroyed in FPV infected cats intestinal bacteria may. invade the blood stream Bacteriaemia may ensue facilitated by the existing. neutropenia and lead to sepsis in these immunocompromised patients Prevention of. sepsis is essential and a broad spectrum antibiotic with a proven efficacy against. gram negative and anaerobic bacteria is recommended Examples are. amoxicillin clavulanic acid or piperacillin in combination with aminoglycosides. ABCD feline panleukopenia V3 2015, fluoroquinolones cephalosporins or piperacillin tazobactam The potential side. effects of these drugs should be taken into consideration Antibiotics should be. administered parenterally preferentially intravenously. Oral intake of water and food should only be restricted if vomiting persists and. feeding should be continued as long as possible and restarted as soon as possible. Beneficial effects of early enteral nutrition have been reported in canine parvovirosis. Mohr et al 2003 A highly digestible diet is preferred but if the cat does not accept. it any diet is better than no food intake at all If vomiting persists anti emetics should. be considered Vitamin supplements particularly of the B vitamin complex can be. given to prevent development of thiamine deficiency an infrequent sequel. Cats that develop hypoproteinaemia may require plasma or whole blood transfusions. to restore oncotic pressure Plasma transfusion in combination with heparin may. control disseminated intravascular coagulation DIC as it supplements anti thrombin. III and other important plasma proteins In cats that are anorexic or show severe. vomiting and or diarrhoea or in patients with persisting hypoproteinaemia full or. partial parenteral nutrition is required preferably via a central venous catheter in the. jugular vein Hartmann and Hein 2002, Table 2 Overview of treatment in cats with FPV all measures are EBM level 4. Drug Comment ABCD recommendation,Antiviral Therapy. anti FPV serum anti CPV serum beneficial effects in cats. effective in dogs expected, feline recombinant effective in dogs beneficial effects in cats.
Interferon omega expected,Symptomatic Therapy, fluid therapy to control necessary in every cat with. dehydration and vomiting and diarrhea,restore electrolyte. and acid base, antibiotics prevention of sepsis broad spectrum antibiotic with. amoxicillin clavulanic acid proven efficacy against gram. ABCD feline panleukopenia V3 2015, in combination with negative and anaerobic bacteria. aminoglycosides or recommended,fluoroquinolones or.
cephalosporins third,generation, highly digestible diet feeding should be any diet is better than no food. continued as long as,possible and,restarted as soon as. Antiemetics to control vomiting recommended for vomiting. B vitamin complex prevention of recommended,thiamine deficiency. plasma or whole blood to restore oncotic recommended in cats with. transfusion pressure hypoproteinaemia, full or partial parenteral to restore oncotic recommended in cats with. nutrition pressure and meet anorexia severe, energy requirements vomiting diarrhea or persisting.
ABCD feline panleukopenia V3 2015 Figure 1 Graph illustrating the immunity gap Thiry 2002c In this example the critical period is between week 8 and 12 post natum

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