Aashto Lrfd Bridge Construction Specifications Errata -Books Pdf

AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications Errata
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SECTION 4 DRIVEN FOUNDATION PILES 4 15,Sf settlement at failure in. D pile diameter or width in,S elastic deformation of total unsupported pile. The top elevation of the test pile shall be determined. immediately after driving and again just before load testing. to check for heave Any pile that heaves more than 0 25 in. 6 mm shall be redriven or jacked to the original elevation. prior to testing Unless otherwise specified in the contract. documents a minimum three day waiting period shall be. observed between the driving of any anchor piles or the. load test pile and the commencement of the load test. 4 4 5 Splicing of Piles,4 4 5 1 Steel Piles, Full length piles shall be used where practicable If. splicing is permitted the method of splicing shall be as. specified in the contract documents or as approved by the. Engineer The arc method of welding shall be preferred. when splicing steel piles Welding shall only be performed. by certified welders,4 4 5 2 Concrete Piles,Concrete piles shall not be spliced other than to. produce short extensions as permitted herein unless. specified in the contract documents or in writing by the. Short extensions or build ups may be added to the,tops of reinforced concrete piles to correct for.
unanticipated events After the driving is completed the. concrete at the end of the pile shall be cut away leaving. the reinforcing steel exposed for a length of 40 diameters. The final cut of the concrete shall be perpendicular to the. axis of the pile Reinforcement similar to that used in the. pile shall be securely fastened to the projecting steel and. the necessary form work shall be placed care being taken. to prevent leakage along the pile The concrete shall be of. not less than the quality used in the pile Just prior to. placing concrete the top of the pile shall be thoroughly. flushed with water allowed to dry then covered with a. thin coating of neat cement mortar or other suitable. bonding material The forms shall remain in place not less. than seven days and shall then be carefully removed and. the entire exposed surface of the pile finished as. previously specified, 4 16 AASHTO LRFD BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS. 4 4 5 3 Timber Piles, Timber piles shall not be spliced unless specified in. the contract documents or in writing by the Engineer. 4 4 6 Defective Piles, The procedure incident to the driving of piles shall not. subject them to excessive and undue abuse producing. crushing and spalling of the concrete injurious splitting. splintering and brooming of the wood or excessive, deformation of the steel Manipulation of piles to force. them into proper position considered by the Engineer to. be excessive will not be permitted Any pile damaged by. reason of internal defects by improper driving driven out. of its proper location or driven below the butt elevation. fixed by the contract documents or by the Engineer shall. be corrected at the Contractor s expense by one of the. following methods approved by the Engineer for the pile in. The pile shall be withdrawn and replaced by a,new and if necessary longer pile.
A second pile shall be driven adjacent to the,defective or low pile. The pile shall be spliced or built up as otherwise. provided herein or a sufficient portion of the,footing extended to properly embed the pile. All piles pushed up by the driving of adjacent piles or. by any other cause shall be driven down again,All such remedial materials and work shall be. furnished at the Contractor s expense,4 4 7 Pile Cut Off. 4 4 7 1 General,All piles shall be cut off to a true plane at the.
elevations required and anchored to the structure as shown. in the contract documents, All cut off lengths of piling shall remain the property. of the Contractor and shall be properly disposed of. 4 4 7 2 Timber Piles C4 4 7 2, Timber piles which support timber caps or grillage. shall be sawn to conform to the plane of the bottom of the. superimposed structure The length of pile above the. elevation of cut off shall be sufficient to permit the. complete removal of all material injured by driving but. piles driven to very nearly the cut off elevation shall be. carefully added or otherwise freed from all broomed. splintered or otherwise injured material,SECTION 6 GROUND ANCHORS 6 11. where The alignment load is a small load normally less than. ten percent of the design load applied to the ground anchor. AL Alignment load in order to keep the testing equipment in position during. DL Design load for ground anchor,Graph required as specified herein. The maximum test load in a performance test shall be. held for 10 min The jack shall be repumped as necessary. in order to maintain a constant load The loadhold period. shall start as soon as the maximum test load is applied and. the ground anchor movement shall be measured and, recorded at 1 min 2 3 4 5 6 and 10 min If the ground.
anchor movements between 1 min and 10 min exceeds, 0 04 in 1 0 mm the maximum test load shall be held for. an additional 50 min If the load hold is extended the. ground anchor movement shall be recorded at 15 min 20. 25 30 45 and 60 min, A graph shall be constructed showing a plot of ground. anchor movement versus load for each load increment. marked with an asterisk in Table 6 5 5 2 1 and a plot of. the residual ground anchor movement of the tendon at each. alignment load versus the highest previously applied load. Graph format shall be approved by the Engineer prior. 6 5 5 3 Proof Test C6 5 5 3,Those anchors not subjected to a performance test. shall be tested as specified herein, The proof test shall be performed by incrementally If a different maximum test load is to be required a. loading the ground anchor in accordance with the schedule similar to the one given in this article should be. following schedule unless a different maximum test load described in the contract documents. and schedule are indicated in the contract documents The. load shall be raised from one increment to another. immediately after recording the ground anchor movement. The ground anchor movement shall be measured and, recorded to the nearest 0 001 in 0 025 mm with respect.
to an independent fixed reference point at the alignment. load and at each increment of load The load shall be. monitored with a pressure gage At load increments other. than the maximum test load the load shall be held just long. enough to obtain the movement reading,Table 6 5 5 3 1 Proof Test Schedule. 0 25DL 1 20DL,0 50DL 1 33DL,max test load,0 75DL Reduce to lock off load. 6 12 AASHTO LRFD BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS. AL Alignment load,DL Design load for ground anchor. The maximum test load in a proof test shall be held for. 10 min The jack shall be repumped as necessary in order. to maintain a constant load The load hold period shall start. as soon as the maximum test load is applied and the. ground anchor movement shall be measured and recorded. at 1 min 2 3 4 5 6 and 10 min If the ground anchor. movement between 1 min and 10 min exceeds 0 04 in,1 0 mm the maximum test load shall be held for an. additional 50 min If the load hold is extended the ground. anchor movement shall be recorded at 15 min 20 30 45. and 60 min A graph shall be constructed showing a plot of. ground anchor movement versus load for each load, increment in the proof test Graph format shall be approved.
by the Engineer prior to use,6 5 5 4 Creep Test C6 5 5 4. Creep tests shall be performed if specified in the If creep tests are required at least two ground anchors. contract documents The Engineer shall select the ground should be creep tested If a different maximum test load is. anchors to be creep tested to be required a schedule similar to this one should be. The creep test shall be made by incrementally loading described in the contract documents. and unloading the ground anchor in accordance with the. performance test schedule used At the end of each loading. cycle the load shall be held constant for the observation. period indicated in the creep test schedule below unless a. different maximum test load is indicated in the contract. documents The times for reading and recording the ground. anchor movement during each observation period shall be. 1 min 2 3 4 5 6 10 15 20 25 30 45 60 75 90 100, 120 150 180 210 240 270 and 300 min as appropriate. Each load hold period shall start as soon as the test load is. applied In a creep test the pressure gage and reference. pressure gage shall be used to measure the applied load. and the load cell shall be used to monitor small changes of. load during a constant load hold period The jack shall be. repumped as necessary in order to maintain a constant. Table 6 5 5 4 1 Creep Test Schedule,AL Observation. 1 33DL 300,SECTION 26 METAL CULVERTS 26 11, Figure 26 5 4 1 1 End Treatment of Skewed Flexible. 26 5 4 2 Arches C26 5 4 2, Arches may require special shape control during the Pin connections at the footing restrict uniform shape.
placement and compaction of structure backfill change Arches may peak excessively or experience. Prior to construction the Manufacturer shall attend a curvature flattening in their upper quadrants during. preconstruction conference to advise the Contractor s and backfilling Using lighter compaction equipment more. Engineer of the more critical functions to be performed easily compacted structure backfill or top loading by. during backfilling and to present the intended quality placing a small load of structure backfill on the crown will. control steps to be used to control loads shape and aid installation. 26 5 4 3 Long Span Structures C26 5 4 3, Prior to construction the Manufacturer shall attend a Backfill requirements for long span structural plate. preconstruction conference to advise the Contractor s and structures are similar to those for smaller structures Their. Engineer of the more critical functions to be performed size and flexibility require special control of backfill and. during backfilling and to present the intended quality continuous monitoring of structure shape. control steps to be used to control loads shape and. Equipment and construction procedures used to, backfill long span structural plate structures shall be such. that excessive structure distortion will not occur Structure. shape shall be checked regularly during backfilling to. verify acceptability of the construction methods used. Magnitude of allowable shape changes will be specified by. the Manufacturer Fabricator of long span structures The. Manufacturer shall provide a qualified shape control. Inspector to aid the Engineer during the placement of all. structure backfill to the minimum cover level over the. structure The shape control Inspector shall advise the. Construction Engineer on the acceptability of all backfill. material and methods and the proper monitoring of the. shape Structure backfill material shall be placed in. horizontal uniform layers not exceeding an 8 0 in, 26 12 AASHTO LRFD BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS. 200 mm loose lift thickness and shall be brought up. uniformly on both sides of the structure Each layer shall. be compacted to a density not less than 90 percent. modified density per AASHTO T 180 The structure, backfill shall be constructed to the minimum lines and. grades shown in the contract documents keeping it at or. below the level of adjacent soil or embankment The. following exceptions to the required structure backfill. density shall be permitted,the area under the invert.
the 12 0 in to 18 0 in 300 mm to 450 mm,width of soil immediately adjacent to the large. radius side plates of high profile arches and,inverted pear shapes and. the lower portion of the first horizontal lift of,overfill carried ahead of and under the small. tracked vehicle initially crossing the structure,26 5 4 4 Box Culverts C26 5 4 4. A preconstruction conference on backfilling shall be Metal box culverts are not long span structures. required only when specified in the contract document or because they are relatively stiff semi rigid frames. required by the Engineer Shape control considerations. should be similar to those needed for a metal culvert. Structure backfill material shall be placed in uniform. horizontal layers not exceeding an 8 in 200 mm, maximum loose lift thickness and compacted to a density.
not less than 90 percent modified density per AASHTO. T 180 The structure backfill shall be constructed to the. minimum lines and grades shown in the contract, documents keeping it at or below the level of the adjacent. soil or embankment,26 5 5 Bracing, When required temporary bracing shall be installed. and shall remain in place as long as necessary to protect. workers and to maintain structure shape during erection. For long span structures which require temporary, bracing or cabling to maintain the structure in shape the. supports shall not be removed until the structure backfill is. placed to an elevation to provide the necessary support In. no case shall internal braces be left in place when. backfilling reaches the top quadrant of the pipe or the top. radius arc portion of a long span structure,26 5 6 Arch Substructures and Headwalls. Substructures and headwalls shall be designed in, accordance with the applicable requirements of AASHTO.
LRFD Bridge Design Specifications 2004,SECTION 27 CONCRETE CULVERTS 27 5. Figure 27 5 2 2 2 Standard Trench Installation,Round Pipe. 27 6 AASHTO LRFD BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS. Figure 27 5 2 2 3 Embankment Beddings Miscellaneous. SECTION 27 CONCRETE CULVERTS 27 11, Figure 27 5 2 3 1 Bedding and Backfill Requirements. 27 5 3 Placing Culvert Sections,Unless otherwise authorized by the Engineer the. laying of culvert sections on the prepared bedding shall be. started at the outlet and with the bell end pointing. upstream and the spigot or tongue end pointing, downstream and shall proceed toward the inlet end with.
the abutting sections properly matched true to the. established lines and grades Where pipe with bells is. installed bell holes shall be excavated in the bedding to. such dimensions that the entire length of the barrel of the. pipe will be supported by the bedding when properly. installed as shown in Figure 27 5 3 1 Proper facilities. shall be provided for hoisting and lowering the sections of. culvert into the trench without disturbing the prepared. bedding and the sides of the trench The ends of the section. shall be carefully cleaned before the section is jointed The. section shall be fitted and matched so that when laid in the. bed it shall form a smooth uniform conduit When, elliptical pipe with circular reinforcing or circular pipe. with elliptical reinforcing is used the pipe shall be laid in. the trench in such position that the markings Top or. Bottom shall not be more than five degrees from the. vertical plane through the longitudinal axis of the pipe. Adjustments in grade by exerting force on the culvert with. excavating equipment or by lifting and dropping the. culvert shall be prohibited If the installed culvert section. is not on grade after joining the section shall be. completely unjoined the grade corrected and the section. 27 12 AASHTO LRFD BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS. Figure 27 5 3 1 Excavation of Bell Holes for Uniform. Multiple installations of reinforced concrete culverts. shall be laid with the center lines of individual barrels. parallel at the spacing shown in the contract documents. Pipe and box sections used in parallel installations require. positive lateral bearing between the sides of adjacent pipe. or box sections Compacted earth fill granular backfill or. grouting between the units are considered means of. providing positive bearing,27 5 4 Haunch Lower Side and Backfill or Overfill. 27 5 4 1 Precast Reinforced Concrete Circular,Arch and Elliptical Pipe. Haunch material low side material and overfill, material shall be installed to the limits shown on. Figures 27 5 2 2 1 through 27 5 2 2 4, 27 5 4 2 Precast Reinforced Concrete Box C27 5 4 2.
Backfill material shall be installed to the limits shown Although usually constructed with vertical walls. in Figure 27 5 2 3 1 for the embankment or trench installation of precast box culverts in trenches with sloping. condition sidewalls has not been a problem, 27 5 4 3 Placing of Haunch Lower Side and C27 5 4 3. Backfill or Overfill, Fill material shall be placed in layers with a maximum Generally compaction of fill material to the required. loose thickness of 8 0 in 200 mm and compacted to density is dependent on the thickness of the layer of fill. obtain the required density The fill material shall be being compacted soil type soil moisture content type of. placed and compacted with care under the haunches of the compaction equipment and amount of compactive force. culvert and shall be raised evenly and simultaneously on and length of time the force is applied. both sides of the culvert For the lower haunch areas of. Type 1 2 and 3 Standard Installations soils requiring. 90 percent or greater standard proctor densities shall be. placed in layers with a maximum thickness of 8 0 in. 200 mm and compacted to obtain the required density. The width of trench shall be kept to the minimum required. for installation of the culvert Ponding or jetting will be. only by the permission of the Engineer,SECTION 31 ALUMINUM STRUCTURES 31 7. 31 4 FABRICATION, 31 4 1 Identification of Aluminum Alloys During C31 4 1. Fabrication, The Contractor shall issue cutting instructions and Aluminum Standards and Data gives color codes for.
mark individual pieces so as to be able to identify the additional alloys and other information on identification. material used for each piece Metal stamping marks scribe marking used by aluminum producers in Section 4. lines and center punch marks shall not be used where they. will remain on fabricated material,The Contractor may furnish material that can be. identified by lot and mill test report from stock, During fabrication prior to assembly each piece shall. clearly show its material specification Writing the. material specification number on the piece or by using the. identification color codes shown in Table 31 4 1 1 shall be. taken as compliance with this provision,Table 31 4 1 1 Identification Color Codes. Alloy Color,5083 Red and Gray,5086 Red and Orange,6063 Yellow and Green. Aluminum alloys not listed in Table 31 4 1 1 shall be. marked with colors listed in Aluminum Standards and. Any piece which will be subject to fabrication that. might obscure its identification prior to assembly shall. have a substantial tag affixed showing the material. specification number,Upon request by the Engineer the Contractor shall.
furnish an affidavit certifying that the identification of. pieces has been maintained in accordance with this. specification,31 4 2 Storage of Materials,Material shall be stored out of contact with the. ground free from dirt grease and foreign matter and out. of contact with dissimilar materials such as uncoated steel. 31 4 3 Plates,31 4 3 1 Direction of Rolling, Unless otherwise specified in the contract documents. plates for main members and splice plates for flanges and. main tension members i e not secondary members shall. be cut and fabricated so that the primary direction of. rolling is parallel to the direction of the main tensile and or. compressive stresses, 31 8 AASHTO LRFD BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS. 31 4 3 2 Plate Edges,Plates more than 0 5 in 12 mm thick carrying. calculated stress shall not be sheared All edges that have. been cut by the arc process shall be planed to remove edge. cracks Oxygen cutting shall not be used Re entrant. corners shall be filleted to a radius of 0 75 in 20 mm. 31 4 3 3 Bent Plates,31 4 3 3 1 General,Bend lines in unwelded load carrying rolled.
aluminum plates shall be perpendicular to the direction of. Before bending the corners of the plates shall be, rounded to a radius of 0 0625 in 1 5 mm throughout the. portion of the plate over which the bending is to occur. 31 4 3 3 2 Cold Bending C31 4 3 3 2, Cold bending shall not produce cracking For Recommended bend radii for 90 degree cold bends for. 90 degree bends bend radii measured to the concave face other alloys may be found in Table 7 6 of Aluminum. of the metal shall not be less than those listed in Standards and Data 2003 Metric SI. Table 31 4 3 3 2 1,Table 31 4 3 3 2 1 Minimum Bend. Radii in for 90 Degree Bends,Plate Thickness in,Alloy 0 1875 0 25 0 375 0 5. 5083 H321 0 28 0 35 0 79 1 77,5086 H116 0 28 0 47 0 98 1 42.
5456 H116 0 38 0 59 1 18 1 65,6061 T6 0 55 0 83 1 77 2 36. 31 4 4 Fit of Stiffeners C31 4 4, End bearing stiffeners for girders and stiffeners Full bearing may be obtained by milling grinding or. intended as supports for concentrated loads shall bear fully in the case of compression regions of flanges by welding. on the flanges to which they transmit load or from which. they receive load Intermediate stiffeners not intended to. support concentrated loads shall have a tight fit against the. compression flange unless specified otherwise,31 4 5 Abutting Joints. Abutting ends of compression members of trusses and. columns shall be milled or saw cut to give a square joint. and uniform bearing At other joints the distance between. adjacent members shall not exceed 0 375 in 10 mm,SECTION 31 ALUMINUM STRUCTURES 31 11. 31 4 11 Aluminum Bridge Decks,31 4 11 1 General, Dimensional tolerances specified below for aluminum.
bridge deck panels shall be applied to each completed but. unloaded panel The deviation from detailed flatness. straightness or curvature at any point shall be the. perpendicular distance from that point to a template edge. which has the detailed straightness or curvature and which. is in contact with the panel at two other points The. template edge may have any length not exceeding the. lesser of the greatest dimension of the panel and 1 5 times. the least dimension of the panel it may be placed, anywhere on the panel The distance between adjacent. points of contact of the template edge with the panel shall. be used in the formulas to establish the tolerances for the. panel whenever this distance is less than the applicable. dimension of the panel specified for the formula,31 4 11 2 Flatness of Panels. The deviation from detailed flatness or curvature of. a panel shall not exceed,0 1875 in 31 4 11 2 1,D the least dimension along the boundary of the. T the minimum thickness of the top flange of the,31 4 11 3 Straightness of Longitudinal Stiffeners. Subject to Calculated Compressive Stress,The deviation from detailed straightness or.
curvature in any direction perpendicular to the length of a. longitudinal stiffener subject to calculated compressive. stress shall not exceed,31 4 11 3 1,L the length of the stiffener over which the. deviation in detailed straightness or curvature is. measured in mm, 31 12 AASHTO LRFD BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS. 31 4 11 4 Straightness of Transverse Web,Stiffeners and Stiffeners Not Subject to. Calculated Compressive Stress,The deviation from detailed straightness or. curvature in any direction perpendicular to the length of a. transverse stiffener or a stiffener not subject to calculated. compressive stress shall not exceed,31 4 11 4 1,L the length of the stiffener over which the.
deviation in detailed straightness or curvature is. measured in mm,31 4 12 Full Size Tests, When full size tests of fabricated structural members. are required in the contract documents the Contractor shall. provide suitable facilities material supervision and labor. necessary for making and recording the required tests The. members tested shall be paid for in accordance with. Article 31 7 2 Basis of Payment,31 4 13 Marking and Shipping. Each member shall be painted or marked with an, erection mark for identification and an erection diagram. showing these marks shall be furnished to the Engineer. Metal stamping shall not be used to mark aluminum parts. The Contractor shall furnish to the Engineer as many. copies of material orders shipping statements and erection. diagrams as the Engineer may direct The weight mass of. the individual members shall be shown on the statements. Members having a weight mass of more than 6 5 kips. 3000 kg shall have the weight mass marked on them, Structural members shall be loaded on trucks or cars in. such a manner that they may be transported and unloaded. at their destination without being damaged, Bolts nuts and washers from each rotational capacity.
lot shall be shipped in the same container If there is only. one production lot number for each size of nut and washer. the nuts and washers may be shipped in separate, containers The gross weight mass of any container shall. not exceed 0 3 kips 140 kg A list showing the quantity. and description of materials shall be plainly marked on the.

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