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A TEXTBOOK OF, ELECTRICAL, TECHNOLOGY, BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING. S I SYSTEM OF UNITS, Including rationalized M K S A System. For the Examinations of B E Common Course to All Branches B Tech. B Sc Engg Sec A B of AMIE I A M I E E London I E R E London. Grade I E T E Diploma and other Competitive Examinations. B L THERAJA, A K THERAJA, Revised by, S G TARNEKAR. B E Hons M Tech El Machines, Ph D Electrical Power Systems. Former Professor Head Electrical Engineering Department. Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology Nagpur. AN ISO 9001 2000 COMPANY, S CHAND COMPANY LTD, RAM NAGAR NEW DELHI 110 055.

S CHAND COMPANY LTD, An ISO 9001 2000 Company, Head Office 7361 RAM NAGAR NEW DELHI 110 055. Phones 23672080 81 82 Fax 91 11 23677446, Shop at schandgroup com. E mail schand vsnl com, z 1st Floor Heritage Near Gujarat Vidhyapeeth Ashram Road Ahmedabad 380 014. Ph 7541965 7542369, z No 6 Ahuja Chambers 1st Cross Kumara Krupa Road Bangalore 560 001 Ph 2268048 2354008. z 152 Anna Salai Chennai 600 002 Ph 8460026, z S C O 6 7 8 Sector 9D Chandigarh 160017 Ph 749376 749377.

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system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic mechanical photocopying. recording or otherwise without the prior permission of the Publisher. First Edition 1959, Subsequent Editions and Reprint 1960 61 62 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 Twice 74 75 76 77. 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 Twice 85 86 87 88 Twice 89 91 93 94 95 96 97 98 Twice 99 2000. 2001 2002 Thoroughly Revised Twenty third Edition 2002. Reprint 2003 2004, First Multicolour Edition 2005, Other Parts Available. Volume II AC DC Machines, Volume III Transmission Distribution Utilization. Volume IV Electronic Devices Circuits, Combined Edition Also Available. ISBN 81 219 2440 5, PRINTED IN INDIA, By Rajendra Ravindra Printers Pvt Ltd 7361 Ram Nagar New Delhi 110 055.

and published by S Chand Company Ltd 7361 Ram Nagar New Delhi 110 055. Preface to the Twenty Third, Revised Multicoloured Edition. uthors feel happy to present to their esteemed readers this. revised first multicoloured edition of Vol I of A Textbook of. Electrical Technology To provide a comprehensive treatment. of topics in Basic Electrical Engineering both for electrical as well. as non electrical students pursuing their studies in civil mechanical. mining textile chemical industrial environmental aerospace electronic. and computer engineering information technology both at the Degree. and Diploma level Based on the suggestions received from our. esteemed readers both from India and abroad the scope of the book. has been enlarged according to their requirements, Establishment of Technological Universities have taken place in. recent past This resulted into a pool of expert manpower within a. large area Unification of syllabi has taken place and the question. papers set during the last 4 5 years have a wider variety and are of. more inquisitive nature Solutions to these with brief logical reasonings. have been added for the benefit of our student community. Many universities include a brief coverage on methods of Electrical. Power Generation in their first and basic paper on this subject. Hence this revision includes an introductory chapter on this topic. It is earnestly hoped that with these extensive additions and. revisions this revised edition will prove even more useful to our. numerous readers in developing more confidence while appearing at. national competitive examinations, I would like to thank my Publishers particularly Mr Ravindra. Kumar Gupta M D and Mr Bhagirath Kaushik Regional Manager. Western India of S Chand Company Ltd for the personal interest. they look in the publishing of this revised and enlarged edition. Our student friends teacher colleagues Booksellers and University. authorities have been showing immense faith and affection in our. book which is acknowledged with modesty and regards We are sure. that this revised edition will satisfy their needs to a still greater extent. and serve its cause more effectively, S G TARNEKAR. Preface to the Twenty second Edition, he primary objective of Vol I of A Textbook of Electrical.

Technology is to provide a comprehensive treatment of topics in. Basic Electrical Engineering both for electrical as well as non. electrical students pursuing their studies in civil mechanical mining. textile chemical industrial environmental aerospace electronic. and computer engineering both at the Degree and Diploma level. Based on the suggestions received from our esteemed readers both. from India and abroad the scope of the book has been enlarged. according to their requirements Almost half the solved examples. have been deleted and replaced by latest examination papers set upto. 1994 in different engineering colleges and technical institutions in. India and abroad, Following major additions changes have been made in the present. 1 Three new chapters entitled a A C Network Analysis b A C. Filter Networks and c Fourier Series have been added thereby. widening the scope of the book, 2 The chapter on Network Theorems has been updated with the. addition of Millman s Theorem as applicable to voltage and current. sources or both and an article on Power Transfer Efficiency relating. to Maximum Power Transfer Theorem, 3 The additions to the chapter on Capacitors include detailed. articles on Transient Relations during Capacitor Charging and Discharging. Cycles and also the Charging and Discharging of a Capacitor with. Initial Charge, 4 Chapter on Chemical Effects of Current has been thoroughly. revised with the inclusion of Electronic Battery Chargers Static. Uninterruptable Power Supply UPS Systems High Temperature. Batteries Secondary Hybrid Cells Fuel Cells and Aircraft and Submarine. 5 A detailed description of Thermocouple Ammeter has been. added to the chapter on Electrical Instruments, 6 The chapter on Series A C Circuits has been enriched with.

many articles such as Determination of Upper and Lower Half power. Frequencies Value of Edge Frequencies and Relation between. Resonant Power and Off resonance Power, It is earnestly hoped that with these extensive additions and. revisions the present edition will prove even more useful to our. numerous readers than the earlier ones, As ever before we are thankful to our publishers particularly Sh. Ravindra Kumar Gupta for the personal interest he took in the. expeditious printing of this book and for the highly attractive cover. design suggested by him Our sincere thanks go to their hyperactive. and result oriented overseas manager for his globe trotting efforts to. popularise the book from one corner of the globe to the other Lastly. we would love to record our sincere thanks to two brilliant ladies Mrs. Janaki Krishnan from ever green fairy land of Kerala and Ms Shweta. Bhardwaj from the fast paced city of Delhi for the secretarial support. they provided us during the prepration of this book. 1 Electric Current and Ohm s Law, Electron Drift Velocity Charge Velocity and Velocity of. Field Propagation The Idea of Electric Potential, Resistance Unit of Resistance Law of Resistance Units. of Resistivity Conductance and Conductivity Effect of. Temperature on Resistance Temperature Coefficient of. Resistance Value of a at Different Temperatures, Variation of Resistivity with Temperature Ohm s Law.

Resistance in Series Voltage Divider Rule Resistance. in Parallel Types of Resistors Nonlinear Resistors. Varistor Short and Open Circuits Shorts in a Series. Circuit Opens in Series Circuit Open s in a Parallel. Circuit Shorts in Parallel Circuits Division of Current. in Parallel Circuits Equivalent Resistance Duality. Between Series and Parallel Circuits Relative Potential. Voltage Divider Circuits Objective Tests, 2 DC Network Theorems 51 174. Electric Circuits and Network Theorems Kirchhoff s. Laws Determination of Voltage Sign Assumed Direction. of Current Solving Simultaneous Equations, Determinants Solving Equations with Two Unknowns. Solving Equations With Three Unknowns Independent, and Dependent Sources Maxwell s Loop Current. Method Mesh Analysis Using Matrix Form Nodal, Analysis with Voltage Sources Nodal Analysis with. Current Sources Source Conversion Ideal Constant, Voltage Source Ideal Constant Current Source.

Superposition Theorem Thevenin Theorem How to, Thevenize a Given Circuit General Instructions for. Finding Thevenin Equivalent Circuit Reciprocity, Theorem Delta Star Transformation Star Delta. Transformation Compensation Theorem Norton s, Theorem How to Nortanize a Given Circuit General. Instructions for Finding Norton Equivalent Circuit. Millman s Theorem Generalised Form of Millman s, Theorem Maximum Power Transfer Theorem Power. Transfer Efficiency Objective Tests, 3 Work Power and Energy 175 188.

Effect of Electric Current Joule s Law of Electric Heat. ing Thermal Efficiency S I Units Calculation of, Kilo watt Power of a Hydroelectric Station Objective. 4 Electrostatics 189 212, Static Electricity Absolute and Relative Permittivity of a. Medium Laws of Electrostatics Electric Field, Electrostatic Induction Electric Flux and Faraday Tubes. Field Strength or Field Intensity or Electric Intensity E. Electric Flux Density or Electric Displacement D Gauss. Law The Equations of Poisson and Laplace Electric, Potential and Energy Potential and Potential Difference. Potential at a Point Potential of a Charged Sphere. Equipotential Surfaces Potential and Electric Intensity. Inside a Conducting Sphere Potential Gradient, Breakdown Voltage and Dielectric Strength Safety Factor.

of Dielectric Boundary Conditions Objective Tests, 5 Capacitance 213 256. Capacitor Capacitance Capacitance of an Isolated, Sphere Spherical Capacitor Parallel plate Capacitor. Special Cases of Parallel plate Capacitor Multiple and. Variable Capacitors Cylindrical Capacitor Potential. Gradient in Cylindrical Capacitor Capacitance Between. two Parallel Wires Capacitors in Series Capacitors in. Parallel Cylindrical Capacitor with Compound, Dielectric Insulation Resistance of a Cable Capacitor. Energy Stored in a Capacitor Force of Attraction Between. Oppositely charged Plates Current Voltage Relationships. in a Capacitor Charging of a Capacitor Time Constant. Discharging of a Capacitor Transient Relations during. Capacitor Charging Cycle Transient Relations during. Capacitor Discharging Cycle Charging and Discharging. of a Capacitor with Initial Charge Objective Tests. 6 Magnetism and Electromagnetism 257 296, Absolute and Relative Permeabilities of a Medium Laws. of Magnetic Force Magnetic Field Strength H Magnetic. Potential Flux per Unit Pole Flux Density B, Absolute Parmeability m and Relative Permeability mr.

Intensity of Magnetisation I Susceptibility K Relation. Between B H I and K Boundary Conditions Weber, and Ewing s Molecular Theory Curie Point Force on a. Current carrying Conductor Lying in a Magnetic Field. Ampere s Work Law or Ampere s Circuital Law Biot, Savart Law Application of Biot Savart Law Force. Between two Parallel Conductors Magnitude of Mutual. Force Definition of Ampere Magnetic Circuit, Definitions Composite Series Magnetic Circuit How. to Find Ampere turns Comparison Between Magnetic, and Electric Circuits Parallel Magnetic Circuits Series. Parallel Magnetic Circuits Leakage Flux and Hopkinson s. Leakage Coefficient Magnetisation Curves, Magnetisation curves by Ballistic Galvanometer.

Magnetisation Curves by Fluxmete Objective Tests, 7 Electromagnetic Induction 297 316. Relation Between Magnetism and Electricity Production. of Induced E M F and Current Faraday s Laws of, Electromagnetic Induction Direction of Induced E M F. and Current Lenz s Law Induced E M F Dynamically, induced E M F Statically induced E M F Self. Inductance Coefficient of Self Inductance L Mutual. Inductance Coefficient of Mutual Inductance M, Coefficient of Coupling Inductances in Series. Inductances in Parallel Objective Tests, 8 Magnetic Hysteresis 317 338.

Magnetic Hysteresis Area of Hysteresis Loop Properties. and Application of Ferromagnetic Materials Permanent. Magnet Materials Steinmetz Hysteresis Law Energy, Stored in Magnetic Field Rate of Change of Stored. Energy Energy Stored per Unit Volume Lifting Power. of Magnet Rise of Current in Inductive Circuit Decay of. A TEXTBOOK OF ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY VOLUME I BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN S I SYSTEM OF UNITS Including rationalized M K S A System For the Examinations of B E Common Course to All Branches B Tech