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A SECURE BASE Therapeutic Care
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Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data. Bowlby John, A secure base parent child attachment and healthy human development John Bowlby. Bibliography p 181,Includes index,ISBN 0 465 07598 3 cloth. ISBN 0 465 07597 5 paper, 1 Attachment behavior in children 2 Parent and child 3 Child psychopathology I Title. RJ507 A77B69 1988,155 4 18 dc19 88 47669, First published in Great Britain by Routledge 11 New Fetter Lane London EC4P 4EE 1988. First published in the U S A by Basic Books A Member of the Perseus Books Group. Copyright 1988 R P L Bowlby R J M Bowlby and A Gatling. Printed in the United States of America,99 RRD H 20 19 18 17 16 15.
iv To Mary D S Ainsworth who introduced the concept of a secure base. Preface ix,Acknowledgments xi,1 Caring for children 1. 2 The origins of attachment theory 20,3 Psychoanalysis as art and science 39. 4 Psychoanalysis as a natural science 58,5 Violence in the family 77. 6 On knowing what you are not supposed to know and feeling what. you are not supposed to feel 99, 7 The role of attachment in personality development 119. 8 Attachment communication and the therapeutic process 137. 9 Developmental psychiatry comes of age 158,References 181.
Name Index 199,Subject Index 203, In 1979 under the title of The Making and Breaking of Affectional Bonds I published a small. collection of lectures that I had given to a variety of audiences during the two preceding. decades In this volume I present a further selection of the lectures given since then Each of. the first five and the ninth were delivered to a particular audience on a particular occasion. details of each are described in a brief preamble The remaining three are extended versions of. lectures given in extempore form to audiences made up of mental health professionals in. countries of Europe and America As in the earlier collection I have thought it best to print. each lecture in a form close to that in which it was originally published. Since the theory of attachment provides the basis for every lecture some deletions have been. necessary to avoid an excess of repetition It is hoped that such as remains will by presenting. the same ideas in different contexts clarify and emphasize distinctive features of the theory. It is a little unexpected that whereas attachment theory was formulated by a clinician for use. in the diagnosis and treatment of emotionally disturbed patients and families its usage. hitherto has been mainly to promote research in developmental psychology Whilst I welcome. the findings of this research as enormously extending our understanding of personality. development and psychopathology and thus as of the greatest. clinical relevance it has none the less been disappointing that clinicians have been so slow to. test the theory s uses There are probably many reasons for this One is that initially the data. drawn on appeared to be unduly behavioural Another is that clinicians are very busy people. who are naturally reluctant to spend time trying to master a new and strange conceptual. framework until they have strong reasons for believing that to do so will improve their clinical. understanding and therapeutic skills For those who have decided the time has come to sample. what this new perspective has to offer I hope the lectures gathered here may provide a. convenient introduction,Acknowledgments, During the past ten years I have had the great benefit of frequent communication with staff. and students at the Tavistock Clinic and also with a number of colleagues engaged in. pioneering studies of how patterns of attachment develop during infancy and childhood To. all of them I owe a deep debt of gratitude often for useful suggestions sometimes for. necessary corrections and always for stimulation and encouragement To my secretary. Dorothy Southern I also owe a deep debt of gratitude for many years of devoted service. during which she has made my interests her own, For editorial assistance in preparing these lectures for publication and for constructing the. index my thanks are due to Molly Townsend, The first six lectures in this book have appeared in other publications and I am grateful to the. publishers concerned for permission to reproduce them here Lecture 1 was chapter 18 in. Parenthood A Psychodynamic Perspective edited by Rebecca S Cohen Bertram J Cohler. and Sidney H Weissman the Guilford Press New York 1984 Lecture 2 was Attachment. and loss retrospect and prospect American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 52 664 78 1982. Lecture 3 was Psychoanalysis as art and science International Review of Psychoanalysis. 6 3 14 1979 Lecture 4 was Psychoanalysis as a natural science International Review of. Psychoanalysis 8 243 56 1981 Lecture 5 was Violencein the family as a disorder of the. attachment and caregiving systems, in the family as a disorder of the attachment and caregiving systems The American Journal.
of Psychoanalysis 44 9 27 1984 Lecture 6 was chapter 6 in Cognition and Psychotherapy. edited by Michael J Mahoney and Arthur Freeman Plenum Publishing Corporation New. York and London 1985 expanded from On knowing what you are not supposed to know. and feeling what you are not supposed to feel Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 24 403 8. The first six lectures in this book and the ninth have appeared in other publications and I am. grateful to the publishers concerned for permission to reproduce them here Lecture 1 was. chapter 18 in Parenthood A Psychodynamic Perspective edited by Rebecca S Cohen. Bertram J Cohler and Sidney H Weissman the Guilford Press New York 1984 Lecture 2. was Attachment and loss retrospect and prospect American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 52 664 78 1982 Lecture 3 was Psychoanalysis as art and science International Review. of Psychoanalysis 6 3 14 1979 Lecture 4 was Psychoanalysis as a natural science. International Review of Psychoanalysis 8 243 56 1981 Lecture 5 was Violence in the. family as a disorder of the attachment and caregiving systems The American Journal of. Psychoanalysis 44 9 27 1984 Lecture 6 was chapter 6 in Cognition and Psychotherapy. edited by Michael J Mahoney and Arthur Freeman Plenum Publishing Corporation New. York and London 1985 expanded from On knowing what you are not supposed to know. and feeling what you are not supposed to feel Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 24 403 8. 1979 Lecture 9 was Developmental Psychiatry Comes of Age American Journal of. Psychiatry 145 1 10 1988,John Bowlby,A Secure Base. Parent Child Attachment and Healthy Human Development. Caring for children, During the early months of 1980 I was giving lectures in the United States Amongst. invitations reaching me was one from the psychiatric staff of the Michael Reese Hospital in. Chicago to address a conference on parenting,An indispensable social role. At some time of their lives I believe most human beings desire to have children and desire. also that their children should grow up to be healthy happy and self reliant For those who. succeed the rewards are great but for those who have children but fail to rear them to be. healthy happy and self reliant the penalties in anxiety frustration friction and perhaps. shame or guilt may be severe Engaging in parenthood therefore is playing for high stakes. Furthermore because successful parenting is a principal key to the mental health of the next. generation we need to know all we can both about its nature and about the manifold social. and psychological conditions that influence its development for better or worse The theme is. a huge one and all I can do in this contribution is to sketch the approach that I myself adopt in. thinking about these issues That approach is an ethological one. Before I go into detail however I want to make a few more. general remarks To be a successful parent means a lot of very hard work Looking after a. baby or toddler is a twenty fourhour a day job seven days a week and often a very worrying. one at that And even if the load lightens a little as children get older if they are to flourish. they still require a lot of time and attention For many people today these are unpalatable. truths Giving time and attention to children means sacrificing other interests and other. activities Yet I believe the evidence for what I am saying is unimpeachable Study after. study including those pioneered in Chicago by Grinker 1962 and continued by Offer. 1969 attest that healthy happy and self reliant adolescents and young adults are the. products of stable homes in which both parents give a great deal of time and attention to the. I want also to emphasize that despite voices to the contrary looking after babies and young. children is no job for a single person If the job is to be well done and the child s principal. caregiver is not to be too exhausted the caregiver herself or himself needs a great deal of. assistance From whom that help comes will vary very often it is the other parent in many. societies including more often than is realized our own it comes from a grandmother Others. to be drawn in to help are adolescent girls and young women In most societies throughout the. world these facts have been and still are taken for granted and the society organized. accordingly Paradoxically it has taken the world s richest societies to ignore these basic facts. Man and woman power devoted to the production of material goods counts a plus in all our. economic indices Man and woman power devoted to the production of happy healthy and. self reliant children in their own homes does not count at all We have created a topsy turvy. But I do not want to enter into complex political and economic arguments My reason for. raising these points is to remind you that the society we live in is not only in evolutionary. terms a product of yesterday but in many ways a very peculiar one There is in consequence a. great danger that we shall adopt mistaken norms For just as a society in which there is a. chronic insufficiency of food may take a deplorably inadequate level of nutrition as its norm. so may a society in which parents of, young children are left on their own with a chronic insufficiency of help take this state of. affairs as its norm,An ethological approach, I said earlier that my approach to an understanding of parenting as a human activity is an.
ethological one Let me explain, In re examining the nature of the child s tie to his mother traditionally referred to as. dependency it has been found useful to regard it as the resultant of a distinctive and in part. preprogrammed set of behaviour patterns which in the ordinary expectable environment. develop during the early months of life and have the effect of keeping the child in more or. less close proximity to his mother figure Bowlby 1969 By the end of the first year the. behaviour is becoming organized cybernetically which means among other things that the. behaviour becomes active whenever certain conditions obtain and ceases when certain other. conditons obtain For example a child s attachment behaviour is activated especially by pain. fatigue and anything frightening and also by the mother being or appearing to be. inaccessible The conditions that terminate the behaviour vary according to the intensity of its. arousal At low intensity they may be simply sight or sound of the mother especially effective. being a signal from her acknowledging his presence At higher intensity termination may. require his touching or clinging to her At highest intensity when he is distressed and anxious. nothing but a prolonged cuddle will do The biological function of this behaviour is postulated. to be protection especially protection from predators. In the example just given the individuals concerned are a child and his mother It is evident. however that attachment behaviour is in no way confined to children Although usually less. readily aroused we see it also in adolescents and adults of both sexes whenever they are. anxious or under stress No one should be surprised therefore when a woman expecting a. Throughout this book the child is referred to as masculine in order to avoid clumsy. constructions, a mother caring for young children has a strong desire to be cared for and supported herself. The activation of attachment behaviour in these circumstances is probably universal and must. be considered the norm, A feature of attachment behaviour of the greatest importance clinically and present. irrespective of the age of the individual concerned is the intensity of the emotion that. accompanies it the kind of emotion aroused depending on how the relationship between the. individual attached and the attachment figure is faring If it goes well there is joy and a sense. of security If it is threatened there is jealousy anxiety and anger If broken there is grief. and depression Finally there is strong evidence that how attachment behaviour comes to be. organized within an individual turns in high degree on the kinds of experience he has in his. family of origin or if he is unlucky out of it, This type of theory I believe to have many advantages over the theories hitherto current in our. field For not only does it bring theory into close relationship with observed data but it. provides a theoretical framework for the field compatible with the framework adopted. throughout modern biology and neurophysiology, Parenting I believe can usefully be approached from the same ethologically inspired.
viewpoint This entails observing and describing the set of behaviour patterns characteristic of. parenting the conditions that activate and terminate each how the patterns change as a child. grows older the varying ways that parenting behaviour becomes organized in different. individuals and the myriad of experiences that influence how it develops in any one person. Implicit in this approach is the assumption that parenting behaviour like attachment. behaviour is in some degree preprogrammed and therefore ready to develop along certain. lines when conditions elicit it This means that in the ordinary course of events the parent of. a baby experiences a strong urge to behave in certain typical sorts of way for example to. An increased desire for care either from husband or mother has been reported in studies of. representative groups of women by Wenner 1966 and Ballou 1978. the infant to soothe him when he cries to keep him warm protected and fed Such a. viewpoint of course does not imply that the appropriate behaviour patterns manifest. themselves complete in every detail from the first Clearly that is not so neither in man nor in. any other mammalian species All the detail is learned some of it during interaction with. babies and children much of it through observation of how other parents behave starting. during the parent to be s own childhood and the way his parents treated him and his siblings. This modern view of behavioural development contrasts sharply with both of the older. paradigms one of which invoking instinct over emphasized the preprogrammed component. and the other of which reacting against instinct overemphasized the learned component. Parenting behaviour in humans is certainly not the product of some unvarying parenting. instinct but nor is it reasonable to regard it as the product simply of learning Parenting. behaviour as I see it has strong biological roots which accounts for the very strong emotions. associated with it but the detailed form that the behaviour takes in each of us turns on our. experiences experiences during childhood especially experiences during adolescence. experiences before and during marriage and experiences with each individual child. Thus I regard it as useful to look upon parenting behaviour as one example of a limited class. of biologically rooted types of behaviour of which attachment behaviour is another example. sexual behaviour another and exploratory behaviour and eating behaviour yet others Each of. these types of behaviour contributes in its own specific way to the survival either of the. individual or his offspring It is indeed because each one serves so vital a function that each of. these types of behaviour is in some degree preprogrammed To leave their development solely. to the caprices of individual learning would be the height of biological folly. You will notice that in sketching this framework I am making a point of keeping each of these. types of behaviour conceptually distinct from the others This contrasts of course with. traditional libido theory which has treated them as the varying expressions of a single drive. The reasons for keeping them, distinct are several One is that each of the types of behaviour mentioned serves its own. distinctive biological function protection reproduction nutrition knowledge of the. environment Another is that many of the detailed patterns of behaviour within each general. type are distinctive also clinging to a parent is different from soothing and comforting a. child sucking or chewing food is different from engaging in sexual intercourse Furthermore. factors which influence the development of one of these types of behaviour are not. necessarily the same as those that influence the development of another By keeping them. distinct we are able to study not only the ways in which they differ but also the ways in which. they overlap and interact with each other as it has long been evident they do. Initiation of mother infant interaction, During the past decade or so there has been a dramatic advance in our understanding of the. early phases of mother infant interaction thanks to the imaginative research of workers on. both sides of the Atlantic The studies of Klaus and Kennel are now well known Of special. interest here are their observations of how mothers behave towards their newborns when. given freedom to do what they like after delivery Klaus Trause and Kennell 1975 describe. how a mother immediately after her infant is born picks him up and begins to stroke his face. with her finger tips At this the baby quietens Soon she moves on to touching his head and. body with the palm of her hand and within five or six minutes she is likely to put him to her. breast The baby responds with prolonged licking of the nipple Immediately after the. delivery they noted the mothers appeared to be in a state of ecstasy and interestingly. enough the observers became elated too From the moment of birth attention becomes riveted. on the baby Something about him tends to draw not only the mother and father but all those. present to the new arrival Given the chance a mother is likely during the next few days to. spend many hours just looking at her new possession cuddling him and getting to know him. Usually there comes a moment when she feels the baby is her. very own For some it comes early perhaps when she first holds him or when he first looks. into her eyes For a large minority of primaparae who are delivered in hospital however it. may be delayed for up to a week often until they are home again Robson and Kumar 1980. Phenomena of the greatest importance to which recent research has drawn attention are the. potential of the healthy neonate to enter into an elemental form of social interaction and the. potential of the ordinary sensitive mother to participate successfully in it. When a mother and her infant of two or three weeks are facing one another phases of lively. social interaction occur alternating with phases of disengagement Each phase of interaction. begins with initiation and mutual greeting builds up to an animated interchange comprising. facial expressions and vocalizations during which the infant orients towards his mother with. excited movements of arms and legs then his activities gradually subside and end with the. baby looking away for a spell before the next phase of interaction begins Throughout these. cycles the baby is likely to be as spontaneously active as his mother Where their roles differ. is in the timing of their responses Whereas an infant s initiation and withdrawal from. interaction tend to follow his own autonomous rhythm a sensitive mother regulates her. behaviour so that it meshes with his In addition she modifies the form her behaviour takes to. suit him her voice is gentle but higher pitched than usual her movements slowed and each. next action adjusted in form and timing according to how her baby is performing Thus she. lets him call the tune and by a skilful interweaving of her own responses with his creates a. The speed and efficiency with which these dialogues develop and the mutual enjoyment they. give point clearly to each participant being preadapted to engage in them On the one hand is. See especially the work of Stern 1977 Sander 1977 Brazelton Koslowski and Main. 1974 and Schaffer 1977 For excellent reviews see Schaffer 1979 and Stern 1985. The state of heightened sensitivity that develops in a woman during and especially towards. the end of pregnancy and that enables her to adapt delicately and sensitively to her. infant s needs is a process to which Winnicott 1957 has called attention. the mother s intuitive readiness to allow her interventions to be paced by her infant On the. other is the readiness with which the infant s rhythms shift gradually to take account of the. timing of his mother s interventions In a happily developing partnership each is adapting to. Very similar alternating sequences have been recorded in other quite different exchanges. between mother and child For example Kaye 1977 observing the behaviour of mother and. infant during feeding has found that mothers tend to interact with their infants in precise. synchrony with the infant s pattern of sucking and pausing During bursts of sucking a mother. is generally quiet and inactive during pauses she strokes and talks to her baby Another. example of mother taking her cue from her infant in this case an infant within the age range 5. to 12 months is reported by Collis and Schaffer 1975 A mother and her infant are. introduced to a scene in which there are a number of large brightly coloured toys which. quickly seize their visual attention Observation of their behaviour then shows two things. First both partners as a rule are looking at the same object at the same time Secondly. examination of the timing shows almost invariably that it is the baby who leads and the. mother who follows The baby s spontaneous interest in the toys is evidently closely. monitored by his mother who almost automatically then looks in the same direction A focus. of mutual interest having been established mother is likely to elaborate on it commenting on. the toy naming it manipulating it A sharing experience is then brought about instigated by. the infant s spontaneous attention to the environment but established by the mother allowing. herself to be paced by the baby, Yet another example also reported by Schaffer Schaffer Collis and Parsons 1977. concerns vocal interchange between mother and child at a preverbal level In a comparison of. two groups of children aged 12 and 24 months it was found that the ability of the pair to take. turns and to avoid overlapping was not only strikingly efficient but as characteristic of the. younger as of the older infants Thus long before the appearance of words the pattern of turn. taking so characteristic of human conversation is already present Here again the evidence. suggests that, in ensuring the smooth transitions from one speaker to the other mother is playing the major. My reason for giving these examples at some length is that I believe they illustrate some basic. principles both about parenting and about the nature of the creature who is parented What. emerges from these studies is that the ordinary sensitive mother is quickly attuned to her. infant s natural rhythms and by attending to the details of his behaviour discovers what suits. him and behaves accordingly By so doing she not only makes him contented but also enlists. his co operation For although initially his capacity to adapt is limited it is not absent. altogether and if allowed to grow in its own time is soon yielding rewards Ainsworth and. her colleagues have noted that infants whose mothers have responded sensitively to their. signals during the first year of life not only cry less during the second half of that year than do. the babies of less responsive mothers but are more willing to fall in with their parent s wishes. Ainsworth et al 1978 Human infants we can safely conclude like infants of other species. are preprogrammed to develop in a socially cooperative way whether they do so or not turns. in high degree on how they are treated, This is a view of human nature you will notice radically different from the one that has long.
been current in western societies and that has permeated so much of the clinical theory and. practice we have inherited It points of course to a radically different conception of the role. Roles of mothers and fathers similarities and differences. In the examples given so far the parent concerned has been the mother This is almost. inevitable because for research purposes it is relatively easy to recruit samples of infants who. are being cared for mainly by their mother whereas infants being cared for mainly by their. father are comparatively scarce Let me therefore describe briefly one of several recent studies. which together go some way to correct the balance, Several hundred infants have now been studied by means of the strange situation procedure. devised by Ainsworth Ainsworth, et al 1978 which gives an opportunity to observe how the infant responds first in his. parent s presence next when he is left alone and later when his parent returns As a result of. these observations infants can be classified as presenting a pattern either of secure attachment. to mother or of one of two main forms of insecure attachment to her Since these patterns. have been shown to have considerable stability during the earliest years of life and to predict. how a nursery school child in the age range 41 to 6 years will approach a new person and. tackle a new task Arend Gove and Sroufe 1979 the value of the procedure as a method of. assessing an infant s social and emotional development needs no emphasis. Hitherto almost all the studies using this procedure have observed infants with their mothers. Main and Weston 1981 however extended the work by observing some sixty infants first. with one parent and six months later with the other One finding was that when looked at as. a group the patterns of attachment that were shown to fathers resembled closely the patterns. that were shown to mothers with roughly the same percentage distribution of patterns But a. second finding was even more interesting When the patterns shown by each child. individually were examined no correlation was found between the pattern shown with one. parent and the pattern shown with the other Thus one child may have a secure relationship. with the mother but not with the father a second may have it with the father but not with the. mother a third may have it with both parents and a fourth may have it with neither In their. approach to new people and new tasks the children represented a graded series Children with. a secure relationship to both parents were most confident and most competent children who. had a secure relationship to neither were least so and those with a secure relationship to one. parent but not to the other came in between, Since there is evidence that the pattern of attachment a child undamaged at birth develops. with his mother is the product of how his mother has treated him Ainsworthet al 1978 it is. more than likely that in a similar way the pattern he develops with his father is the product of. how his father has treated him, This study together with others suggests that by providing. an attachment figure for his child a father may be filling a role closely resembling that filled. by a mother though in most perhaps all cultures fathers fill that role much less frequently. than do mothers at least when the children are still young In most families with young. children the father s role is a different one He is more likely to engage in physically active. and novel play than the mother and especially for boys to become his child s preferred play. Provision of a secure base, This brings me to a central feature of my concept of parenting the provision by both parents.
of a secure base from which a child or an adolescent can make sorties into the outside world. and to which he can return knowing for sure that he will be welcomed when he gets there. nourished physically and emotionally comforted if distressed reassured if frightened In. essence this role is one of being available ready to respond when called upon to encourage. and perhaps assist but to intervene actively only when clearly necessary In these respects it is. a role similar to that of the officer commanding a military base from which an expeditionary. force sets out and to which it can retreat should it meet with a setback Much of the time the. role of the base is a waiting one but it is none the less vital for that For it is only when the. officer commanding the expeditionary force is confident his base is secure that he dare press. forward and take risks, In the case of children and adolescents we see them as they get older venturing steadily. further from base and for increasing spans of time The more confident they are that their base. is secure and moreover ready if called upon to respond the more they take it for granted Yet. should one or other parent become ill or die the immense significance of the base to the. emotional equilibrium of the child or adolescent or young adult is at once apparent In the. lectures to follow evidence is presented from, Studies of relevance are those of Lamb 1977 Parke 1979 Clarke Stewart 1978 and. Mackey 1979, studies of adolescents and young adults as well as of school children of different ages from. nursery school up that those who are most stable emotionally and making the most of their. opportunities are those who have parents who whilst always encouraging their children s. autonomy are none the less available and responsive when called upon Unfortunately of. course the reverse is also true, No parent is going to provide a secure base for his growing child unless he has an intuitive. understanding of and respect for his child s attachment behaviour and treats it as the intrinsic. and valuable part of human nature I believe it to be This is where the traditional term. dependence has had so baleful an influence Dependency always carries with it an adverse. valuation and tends to be regarded as a characteristic only of the early years and one which. ought soon to be grown out of As a result in clinical circles it has often happened that. whenever attachment behaviour is manifested during later years it has not only been regarded. as regrettable but has even been dubbed regressive I believe that to be an appalling. misjudgement, In discussing parenting I have focused on the parents role of providing a child with a secure.
base because although well recognized intuitively it has hitherto I believe been. inadequately conceptualized But there are of course many other roles a parent has to play. One concerns the part a parent plays in influencing his child s behaviour in one direction or. another and the range of techniques he uses to do so Although some of these techniques are. necessarily restrictive and certain others have a disciplinary intent many of them are of an. encouraging sort for example calling a child s attention to a toy or some other feature of the. environment or giving him tips on how to solve a problem he cannot quite manage on his. own Plainly the repertoire of techniques used varies enormously from parent to parent from. largely helpful and encouraging to largely restrictive and punitive An interesting start in. exploring the range of techniques used by the parents of toddlers in Scotland has been made. by Schaffer and Crook 1979, Peri and post natal conditions that help or hinder. So far in this lecture my aim has been to describe some of the ways in which the parents of. children who thrive socially and emotionally are observed to behave towards them. Fortunately much of this behaviour comes naturally to many mothers and fathers who find. the resulting interchanges with their children enjoyable and rewarding Yet it is evident that. even when social and economic conditions are favourable these mutually satisfying. relationships do not develop in every family Let us consider therefore what we know of the. psychological conditions that foster their doing so and those that impede them. At several points I have referred to the ordinary sensitive mother who is attuned to her child s. actions and signals who responds to them more or less appropriately and who is then able to. monitor the effects her behaviour has on her child and to modify it accordingly The same. description no doubt would apply to the ordinary sensitive father Now it is clear that in. order for a parent to behave in these ways adequate time and a relaxed atmosphere are. necessary This is where a parent especially the mother who usually bears the brunt of. parenting during the early months or years needs all the help she can get not in looking. after her baby which is her job but in all the household chores. A friend of mine a social anthropologist observed that in the South Sea island in which she. was working it was the custom for a mother to be both during and after the baby was born to. be attended by a couple of female relatives who cared for her throughout the first month. leaving her free to care for her baby So impressed was my friend by these humane. arrangements that when her own baby was born on the island she accepted suggestions that. she be cared for in the VIP way and she had no cause to regret it In addition to practical help. a congenial female companion is likely to provide the new mother with emotional support or. in my terminology to provide for her the kind of secure base we all need in conditons of. stress and without which it is difficult to relax In almost all societies an arrangement of this. sort is the rule Indeed in all but one of 150 cultures studied by anthropologists a family. member or friend, usually a woman remains with a mother throughout labour and delivery Raphael 1966. quoted by Sosaet al 1980, Turning to our own society preliminary findings that if confirmed are of the greatest interest. and practical importance have recently been reported by the Klaus and Kennell team from a. study conducted in a hospital maternity unit in Guatemala Sosa et al 1980 One group of. women went through labour and delivery according to the routine practice of the unit which. meant in effect that the woman was left alone for most of the time The other group received. constant friendly support from an untrained lay woman from the time of admission until. delivery one woman during the day and another at night In the supported group labour was. less than half as long as in the other 8 7 hours against 19 3 Moreover the mother was. awake for a greater part of the first hour of the infant s life during which she was much more. likely to be seen stroking her baby smiling and talking to him. Effects of a similar kind on the way a mother treats her baby as a result of her having. additional contact with him soon after his birth are now well known Amongst differences. observed by Klaus and Kennell when the babies were one month old was that a mother given. extra contact was more likely to comfort her baby during stressful clinic visits and during. feeding was more likely to fondle the baby and engage him in eye to eye contact Differences. of a comparable kind were observed when the babies were 12 months old and again at 2. years In these studies the increased contact amounted to no more than an extra hour within. the first three hours after birth with a further five of contact each afternoon during the next. three days Kennellet al 1974 Ringleret al 1975, Since more recent studies e g Svejda Campos and Emde 1980 have failed to replicate. initial findings of the effects of early mother infant contact the issue remains in doubt It. may be that in this sensitive area details of how this early contact is arranged and by whom. would explain discrepancies, In a further and larger study also carried out in Guatemala and by the same research group.
all findings were replicated Samples numbered 279 in the routine group and 186 in the. supported group Not only was the duration of labour halved but the incidence of perinatal. complications halved also Klauset al 1986, Findings of another study of the part these kinds of peri and post natal experiences play in. either assisting a mother to develop a loving and sensitive relationship to her baby or. impeding it are reported by Peterson and Mehl 1978 In a longitudinal study of forty six. women and their husbands interviewed and observed during pregnancy labour and on four. occasions during the infants first six months the most significant variable predicting. differences in maternal bonding was the length of time a mother had been separated from her. baby during the hours and days after his birth Other variables that played a significant but. lesser part were the birth experience and the attitudes and expectations expressed by the. mother during her pregnancy,Influence of parents childhood experiences. There is of course much clinical evidence that a mother s feeling for and behaviour towards. her baby are deeply influenced also by her previous personal experiences especially those she. has had and may still be having with her own parents and though the evidence of this in. regard to a father s attitudes is less plentiful what there is points clearly to the same.

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William Stevenson Smith: A Bibliography of His Writings BOOKS ... The Rise and Fall of the Middle Kingdom in Thebes, by H. E. Winlock. New York, 1947. AjA 52 (1948), pp. 305-307. Kingship and the Gods, by Henri Frankfort. Chicago, 1948. AjA 53 (1949), pp. Meisterwerke der agyptischen Kunst, by Hermann Ranke. Basel, 1948. JAOS 70 Great Tombs of the First Dynasty, vol. I, Excavations at Sakkara ...

HO-989 Walter and Sadie Smith House

HO 989 Walter and Sadie Smith House

The Walter and Sadie Smith House was constructed c. 1912 on a two-acre parcel cut off of the small farm of Richard and Mary Johnson in that year. Based on the roof arrangement, the house that they constructed reads as a hall-parlor plan with the west as the front, and with an ell on the east. The kitchen was probably located in the ell, since it is the only room with a chimney. However, the ...

Guidelines for treatment, care and support for amputees ...

Guidelines for treatment care and support for amputees

those experiencing a traumatic amputation as a result of a motor vehicle accident. Therefore the Guidelines for treatment, care and support for amputees within the LSS living in the community are proposed to fill this gap in the literature and to guide the provision of treatment, equipment, prosthetics, home modifications and attendant



Kecukupan Modal, Risiko Pembiayaan dan Ukuran Perusahaan Terhadap Profitabilitas pada Bank Umum Syariah yang terdaftar di Bank Indonesia (BI) Tahun 2014-2017. Jenis data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah data sekunder. Data sekunder merupakan data yang diperoleh melalui sumber data yang sudah ada.