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A Master Plan for Sustainable Tourism Development
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WP 2007 06,A Master Plan for Sustainable,Tourism Development. Koh Lanta Yai Krabi Province,Chulalongkonrn University. University of California Berkeley,Thai Public Policy Foundation. Table of Contents, Acknowledgements and Participants iv Infrastructure 24. Roads and Traffic 27,Introduction 1,Ferries and Proposed Bridge Connections 27.
The Sumatra Andaman Earthquake,and Tsunami 1 Energy Resources 28. The Partnership Chulalongkorn University Water Resources 29. the University of California Berkeley, the Thai Public Policy Foundation 2 Solid Waste 33. Workshop 2005 2 The Dump 36,Workshop 2006 2,Economic Social Cultural and Political 37. Working Objectives 2,Conceptual Framework Communities. Working Groups Ecology Infrastructure Responses to Development 37. Economic Social Cultural Political 3,Analytical Framework Government Vision.
The Master Plan 4 vs Community Trends 37,Elements of the gap 38. Koh Lanta Yai, Tourist Destination and Home 4 Cultural Resources 39. Location Population Tourism Figures 4,Lanta Ban Rao Facing the Future 40. Current Land Uses 6,Immediate Recommendations 41,Development Trends 8. Implementation Lanta Ban Rao Forum 43, Watersheds Ecological Building Blocks 10 Goals of Lanta Ban Rao 45.
Watershed Threats 13 Directed Development and Cluster Tourism 45. Watershed Assessment 15 Descriptions of Proposed Tourism Clusters 45. Ecological Resources 18,Next steps 50,Rainforest 20. References 52,Riparian Corridors 20,Wetlands 21,Beach Forest 21. Beach and Inter tidal Zones 22,Mangroves 22,Coral Reefs 23. Ecological Preservation Priority 23,Ecosystems Resource Use and Stakeholders 24. Acknowledgments, Once again we have been privileged to participate in a remarkable international educational partnership.
between Chulalongkorn University Bangkok and the University of California Berkeley Together ten. Chulalongkorn students and ten Berkeley students with the participation of the community of the. island of Koh Lanta Yai created this document It makes clear the options for the future development. of the island as a home to local people and as a tourist destination The balancing of livelihood and. environment is global question but it is answered in local decisions and local places Our intent in this. document is to make the choices attending the residents and leaders of Koh Lanta Yai evident and to. reshape the future of the island to continue to be a healthy sustaining home to its residents supported. by carefully considered tourism, This project is the second of three collaborative efforts focused on the Krabi Province of Thailand. Through the foresight and commitment of its President Khun Chote Soponpanich the Thai Public Policy. Foundation has provided the leadership and extraordinary support in these efforts to mutual cross. cultural learning and environmental sustainability We were fortunate that Khun Pissimai Khandobee. advisor to the Foundation was an indefatigable participant and facilitator in all phases of the project. and brought a deft touch to the many aspects of logistics translation and field research. At Berkeley Professor David Dowall of the Department of City and Regional Planning and Director. of the Institute of Urban and Regional Development initiated the University of California side of the. project From two decades of working his shared wisdom in Thailand brought the project to fruition. and conclusion The Institute and the Beatrix Jones Farrand Fund of the Department of Landscape. Architecture and Environmental Planning supported the project providing for faculty and student travel. Janet Dawson of the Institute seamlessly coordinated the Berkeley logistics. The faculty of Chulalongkorn University was of course integral to this undertaking Dean Amara Pongsapich. of the Faculty of Political Science and Dean Lersom Sthapitanonda of the Faculty of Architecture provided. a larger institutional context for the project and made the resources of the University generously available. to the studio Professor Suwattana Thadaniti Director of the Social Science Research Institute and Dr. Narumon Arunotha its Deputy Director for Research and International Relations participated in forming. the project and gave insight into the particular cultural context in which we worked. Professor Siriwan Silapacharanan of the Department Urban and Regional Planning and Lecturer Pitch. Pongsawat of the Department of Government co directed the studio Without their effective energetic. and insightful guidance the project simply would not have been possible The Chair of the Landscape. Architecture Department Professor Angsana Boonyob has provided careful critiques of our work in. Bangkok Lecturer Danai Thaitakoo of the Department of Landscape Architecture was essential to the. field research in Koh Lanta Yai and invaluably shared his profound understanding of the Thai environment. We have been honored with such exceptional partners and we look forward with enthusiasm to future. collaborations,Louise A Mozingo,Associate Professor. Department of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning. University of California Berkeley,Photos of Participants. Participants,Thai Public Policy Foundation,Khun Chote Soponpanich President. Khun Pissmai Khanobdee Advisor,Chulalongkorn University.
Dean Associate Professor Lersom Sthapitanonda Faculty of Architecture. Dean Professor Dr Amara Pongsapich Faculty of Political Science. Assistant Professor Dr Suwattana Thadaniti Director of the Social Science Research Institute. Dr Narumon Arunotha Deputy Director for Research and International Relations Social Science Research. Assistant Professor Dr Siriwan Silapacharanan Urban and Regional Planning. Chair Assistant Professor Dr Angsana Boonyobhas Landscape Architecture. Lecturer Pitch Pongsawat Government,Lecturer Danai Thaitakoo Landscape Architecture. Elisabeth Appel Kummer Landscape Architecture,Chulalongkorn University Students. Pattama Chooprasert Urban and Regional Planning,Trichart Laokeawnoo Urban and Regional Planning. Wanwisa Mahitthiharn Dept of Urban and Regional Planning. Yingyot Ngoenmak Landscape Architecture, Praphaiphit Olanwat Program in Human and Social Development. Bulwach Pruksanubal Urban and Regional Planning,Chumkate Sawangchareon Landscape Architecture.
Aroonwan Siriwashiraporn Urban and Regional Planning. Wachira Sorsaeng Landscape Architecture,Usuma Suksom Sociology and Anthropology. Sukhumarn Wiriyothin Program in Human and Social Development. University of California Berkeley, Associate Professor Louise A Mozingo Department of Landscape Architecture and Environmental. Professor David E Dowall Department of City and Regional Planning Director Institute of Urban and. Regional Development, Janet Dawson Assistant to the Director Institute of Urban and Regional Development. University of California Students,Kaumudi Ataputta Engineering. Andre Chan City and Regional Planning, Rachel Edmonds Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning.
Sarah Graham Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning City and Regional Planning. Michael Herrin Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning. Fishing boat in Mangrove Forest traditional means of livelihood in Koh Lanta Yai. Introduction in the tourism sector The TAT reports that the. Andaman region alone suffered a 30 loss of, The Sumatra Andaman Earthquake and tourist arrivals in the region. On December 26 2004 a massive undersea Other sectors of the Thailand economy were. Sumatra Andaman earthquake measuring 9 3 on similarly affected by the tsunami Approximately. the Richter scale jarred the waters of the Andaman 5 000 boats were lost or damaged and 30 000. Sea Approximately 580 kilometers off the coast of people lost their jobs in the fisheries sector. Thailand it caused a devastating tsunami wave 10 Over 2 000 hectares of agricultural land were. meters in height to strike the coast of 6 provinces destroyed Overall economic losses are estimated. of western Thailand completely destroying 47 at 1 6 billion with repair costs estimated at 482. villages and severely impacting 360 other villages million. As of May 2006 the death toll was 8 212 people, with approximately 500 bodies still unidentified The tsunami severely affected fragile nearshore. 2 817 people still missing and 8 457 people seeking ecosystems in Thailand Over 305 acres of mangrove. treatment for injuries The tsunami also orphaned forests were impacted Over 3 600 acres of coral. 1 637 children reefs were damaged Approximately 400 acres of. seagrass beds vital for both habitat and grazing, The economic impacts of the tsunami were were flooded The intrusion of saltwater from the. immediate and widespread The Tourism Authority tsunami in addition to damaging 2 000 hectares. of Thailand TAT estimates that tourist arrivals fell of agricultural land also contaminated 102 large. by 20 in Thailand leading to a loss of 25 million ponds 2 321 wells and two ground wells www. each month resulting in the loss of 120 000 jobs tsunamispecialenvoy org country thailand asp. The Partnership Chulalongkorn University a popular eco tourist destination the Ko Phi Phi. the University of California Berkeley and the islands beyond the capabilities of near term repair. Thai Public Policy Foundation especially since the islands are located within. In February 2005 in response to the severe a marine sanctuary Therefore the government. economic and environmental damage caused by identified Koh Lanta Yai for tourism development. the tsunami Chote Soponpanich President of the as the next Hub of the Andaman since its existing. Thai Public Policy Foundation contacted Robert infrastructure was not extensively damaged by the. Birgenau Chancellor of the University of California tsunami. at Berkeley to explore a possible collaboration, between the institutions in post tsunami Workshop 2006. planning for sustainable tourism development A A new workshop to develop the Master Plan for. partnership was formed between the 3 institutions Sustainable Tourism Development in Koh Lanta Yai. leveraging prior institutional connections with in May to June 2006 was the natural continuation. the Chulalongkorn University s Social Research of the 2005 workshop in Krabi Province It. Institute in Bangkok was comprised of ten graduate students from. University of California Berkeley and ten graduate. Workshop 2005 students from Chulalongkorn University Bangkok. From May to October 2005 the partnership with backgrounds in city planning architecture. developed it s first project Strategic Plan political science landscape architecture civil. for Sustainable Tourism Development in Krabi and environmental engineering industrial. Province With support from the Thai Public Policy engineering and operations research and human. Foundation a workshop comprising 10 graduate and social development Together they conducted. students from University of California Berkeley field research in Koh Lanta Yai and returned to. and 10 graduate students from Chulalongkorn Chulalongkorn University Bangkok for additional. University with backgrounds in city planning expert debriefings extensive data analysis and a. architecture government political science and series of daily design charrettes Initial findings. sociology conducted field research throughout and proposals were presented at Chulalongkorn. Krabi Province To identify advantages and University on 16 June 2006 In July and August. disadvantages of various planning policies 2006 the Chulalongkorn students returned to Koh. the workshop developed three local tourism Lanta Yai Yai to conduct further field research In. development scenarios cross matrixed with three September 2006 the students from both universities. global economic prosperity scenarios Utilizing re convened at their respective universities to. an extensive community participation process analyze the findings from the field research and. the plan concluded that sustainable tourism prepare a presentation for the local community. development must take place within the context members and government officials in October. of integrated regional planning for environmental 2006 The findings analysis and recommendations. health of forests and watersheds efficient provision of the field research and workshop comprise the. of infrastructure and equitable and self sufficient content of this report. economic and social development,Working Objectives.
The government of Krabi province recognizing the The workshop began with four working objectives. importance of tourism industry development for, the overall recovery of the Andaman region began 1 Environmental protection of key ecological. to prioritize tourism hubs for the Andaman resources including mangrove forest. region The tsunami damaged the infrastructure of coral reef fisheries and wildlife. 2 Respect for the social and cultural their primary threats The group approached the. heritage of the island residents island s ecological assessment from a watershed. perspective determining that watersheds are the, 3 Development of tourism to veins of the island providing the link between. integrate local people island activity and ecological health Using. Geographic Information Science GIS analysis the, 4 Integration of local knowledge and group identified the island s watersheds and their. initiative in the master planning process level of development The groups examined three. watersheds closely that typified watersheds that, Working Groups Ecology Infrastructure were 1 heavily developed 2 medium developed. Economic Social Cultural Political and 3 minimally developed to determine the. In the master planning process the graduate source and effects of local and tourist activity. students from Chulalongkorn University and the occurring within each watershed The comparative. University of California Berkeley initially met in control was a watershed consisting mainly of. Bangkok for a series of expert debriefings and undeveloped rainforest. then formulated a plan to assess the conditions of. the island The students arranged themselves into Infrastructure. three groups to conduct the field research and The Infrastructure group focused on assessing. analysis four areas of the island s infrastructure roads. transportation including the ferry connection, Ecology and proposed bridge water resources and solid.
Infrastructure waste management The roads and transportation. Economic Social Cultural Political systems were evaluated for their effectiveness for. local and tourist mobility and their effects on the. Each group conducted field research within their island s ecosystems Water resources which vary. focus area to the extent possible all groups visited considerably on the island were evaluated in terms. interview sites and candidates at different times of quantity quality equity of access and as a. and dates to form a comprehensive and multi long term resource Solid waste management and. disciplinary analysis of the entire island community obvious issue on the island was examined regarding. The workshop re convened each evening to allow it s relation to quantity collection fees the. each group to present its findings to the other existing dump and ecological and aesthetic effect. groups and formulate a strategy for the next day s The group also investigated existing examples of. field research After eight days of field research sustainable infrastructure on Koh Lanta Yai. the workshop re convened daily in Bangkok for, an intensive brain storming and charrette in Economic Social Cultural Political ESCP. preparation for a preliminary presentation of The goal of the Economic Social Cultural Political. recommendations at the conclusion of the summer ESCP group was to determine the interconnection. workshop session between the island s local residents and the role of. tourism in their daily lives The group conducted, Ecology over 120 interviews with island locals in group and. The primary focus of the Ecology group was to assess individual settings and in formal town hall settings. the current ecosystem health of the island and as well as in local residents homes The previous. determine best management practices to sustain year s workshop revealed that a government. local ecology as part of a tourism development led tourism strategy has neither addressed the. strategy They identified the island ecosystems and complex needs of Koh Lanta Yai Yai communities. nor strengthened them in the face of international As with any master planning study there are several. tourism The ESCP group examined how local culture limitations to this study Much of the field work. and practices tourism development and the local and research was conducted during the low tourist. governance interact guide and sustain the island s season minimizing the ability to observe first hand. future in the face of expected tourism growth the full impact of tourism on the islands resources. However the extensive interviews conducted with, The Master Plan island locals and observation of the threats to the. The vision of the master plan for Koh Lanta Yai ecosystem during the low season provide a view. is that the island holds value not only as an ideal of this impact while also revealing the hardships. tourist destination but also as a home Lanta Ban endured and the local wisdom practiced by the. Rao The island faces numerous risks associated local residents when the tourism economy abates. with unconstrained development its ecosystems, are rapidly deteriorating in quality and better This master plan does not focus on maximizing. management practices must be implemented tourism development or growth Instead the master. immediately to protect the island s resources not plan is a study of better management practices to. just as a hub of tourism in the Andaman Sea but promote a sustainable tourism strategy for the island. also as a home for the current local residents and with a focus on preservation of the environmental. future Thai generations social and cultural assets of the island necessary for. the high value tourism preferred by both tourists, The following chapters of this report outline the role and local residents Primary attention is given to.
of Koh Lanta Yai as a tourist destination and home the the development of infrastructure to satisfy the. island s development risks its ecological resources basic needs of the island s local residents with the. and threats its cultural resources and threats and belief that a grassroots approach will empower the. several immediate recommendations that need locals to maximize the island s tourism potential. to be implemented to preserve these ecological with awareness of the connections between their. and cultural resources The key development environmental and socio cultural assets. recommendations are encompassed by the vision, of Lanta Ban Rao which unites and balances the Koh Lanta Yai. needs and ambitions of the local residents the Tourist Destination and Home. tourism industry and the government agencies, into a single sustainable tourism development Location Population Tourism Figures. strategy A key component of Lanta Ban Rao vision Koh Lanta Yai is an island located in the southern. is a cluster development strategy to maximize the Thailand province of Krabi It is approximately. unique tourist attracting qualities of the island a twelve hour drive from Bangkok a two hour. minimize the impact of tourism on the ecological drive from Krabi airport or accessible via seasonal. resources that attract tourism and promote ferries from Koh Phi Phi or Krabi Town Koh Lanta. efficient development and delivery of government Yai has a permanent population of 9 245 and a. infrastructure services A second key component seasonal population of 4 874 The population is. of the Lanta Ban Rao vision is the formation of a 90 Muslim. community led organization that provides a forum, for local residents tourism industry partners and Koh Lanta Yai has been experiencing a boom. government agencies to participate and collaborate in tourism in the past five years The number of. in the sustainable tourism development of Koh resorts and hotels has tripled from 46 in 2001 to. Lanta Yai Yai 154 in 2006 The increase in the number of hotels. is consistent with the increase in the number of,Figure 1 Current Land Uses. overnight tourists In 2001 there were 113 000 shrimp farming has detrimental environmental. overnight tourists while in 2004 there were consequences Koh Lanta Yai exports significant. 210 000 Despite the rise in overnight tourists the quantities of shrimp and shrimp farms are unlikely. tourist season is still highly seasonal and current to diminish as long as they are profitable in the. annual occupancy rates are only about 50 short term. Tourism marketing for the island has also increased. and Koh Lanta Yai is increasingly promoted in Forest areas are located upland generally in areas. brochures guidebooks and on the Internet that are too steep or too remote for farming Forest. areas are at the head of many island watersheds, Current Land Uses helping to infiltrate and purify water before it.
Current land uses for Koh Lanta Yai are diverse flows down one of Koh Lanta Yai s many streams. ranging from highly developed resort areas to Forested areas also minimize erosion provide. pristine rainforests These uses include plantations habitat for native species reduce the temperature. shrimp farms forest areas cleared but undeveloped on the island create shade produce oxygen and are. areas mangroves beaches national park area attractive from a tourism standpoint The majority. a dump site and developed areas for local and of the privately owned forested area has been. tourist use as shown in Figure 1 cleared for rubber plantations or development and. consequently much of the remaining forested area, Plantations are scattered throughout the island is within the boundary of the National Park located. though they are most heavily concentrated in the on the southern sector of the island The amount. northwest part of the island Rubber plantations of forested area has been halved since 1985 and. are the most common types of plantation though the national park boundary seems to be the only. a few banana and oil palm plantations also exist mechanism to prevent wholesale destruction of. With rising rubber prices the number and area of the remainder. rubber plantations will likely increase in the near. future Koh Lanta Yai s land use is changing quickly and. many pieces of land are cleared but undeveloped, Shrimp farms are located mostly on the eastern The future of this land is unclear Perhaps it was. side of the island in areas just upland from logged for valuable timber or perhaps it was. mangrove forests They must be located near the cleared for development that did not occur Land. ocean because they continuously pump ocean of this type is located throughout the island and. water through the ponds Shrimp farms have a often on the fringe of current developments In. very limited lifespan because of the chemicals many cases even though the land was cleared. that are involved in this process Shrimp food unmanaged vegetation is now beginning to. contains high levels of nitrogen and antibiotics overgrow the area. the majority of which are excess and not used, by the shrimp The excess quantities either form Mangroves are found in the northeast part of the. sediment at the bottom of the pond or are flushed island as well as on the southwest part of Koh. out to the sea as effluent Because of this process Lanta Noi These areas together form a rich and. the soil of the shrimp farm will soon become toxic extensive mangrove forest The importance of the. to the shrimp The maximum lifespan of a shrimp mangrove forests is paramount These unassuming. farm on Koh Lanta Yai is approximately 5 years areas are hatcheries for large populations of fishes. After toxic saturation the land is either filled and and crabs habitat for birds act as sediment traps. used for banana plantations or simply abandoned for streams and rivers and act as a buffer for coastal. Examples of each of these types of management is erosion Mangroves are crucial to supporting. evident on the eastern side of the island Though coastal fisheries We saw evidence of protection. and replanting of some destroyed mangrove area on the west side of the island The quality of the. in the northeast part of the island but mangrove beaches varies seasonally During the rainy season. forest is still being destroyed for firewood or to winds from the southeast bring debris jellyfish. allow room for transient housing of the Thai Mai and sediment to the beaches making the beaches. people unattractive During the dry season winds blow. from the northeast making water calmer the, The beaches of Koh Lanta Yai are one of its largest beaches cleaner larger and more attractive Koh. tourist draws Nearly all these beaches are located Lanta Yai s beaches are not pristine white sand.

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