A Laboratory Study On Oilwell Cement And Electrical-Books Pdf

A Laboratory Study on Oilwell Cement and Electrical
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2 K R BACKE S K LYOMOV O B LILE SPE 56539, nected to cement Ishchuk et al 4 have looked at conductivity for cement both 2 and 4 electrodes have been used simultane. and yield point of a lithium soap oil system and some further ously in the same test Results from a test are shown in Fig 3. interpretation of their data show a good correlation Ren The curves agree well The small fluctuation in the first 2. gaswamy et al 5 have investigated several concrete mixes from hours is probably caused by uneven temperature distribution. 1 to 28 days with the same result an almost linear correlation within the cement Both electrode configurations have been. between compressive strength and conductivity Ding et al 6 used in our work. have also monitored both parameters Some tests were run with a water layer on top of the ce. This paper is a continuation of a previous paper 7 The pre ment slurry to see how surrounding formation water would. vious paper mainly dealt with the theoretical aspects of cement influence conductivity The additional water led a higher con. and conductivity whereas this paper covers the practical work ductivity at a later stage compared to those tests without a wa. gained experience and results ter layer see Fig 4 This difference is explained by cement. shrinkage During hydration the cement will shrink and this. Measurement Principle shrinkage will be compensated for with whatever fluid that is. This section is a short review of the principle of electrical con around the cement Water conduct current whereas gas will. ductivity measurements and some observations concerning the create voids that lowers the conductivity To make the tests. method and its applicability For a more thorough discussion comparable all tests presented in this paper have been run. on cement and electrical conductivity in general we refer to without a water layer. Christensen et al 3 and in particular for oil well cement to. Backe et al 7 Measurement Setup, Electrical conductivity is the material property which de The practical measurements in the study included several dif. scribes the ability to carry electrical current through the mate ferent cells Initially some very simple cells made from plastic. rial The measurement principle is shown in the left hand of coated cardboard boxes were used to verify that electrical con. Fig 1 where alternating current AC is sent through the ce ductivity could be used on cement These tests were successful. ment via two metal electrodes which cover the whole end sides and subsequently several other cells were used as described. of the cement sample The conductivity is calculated from below. the current I voltage drop U and the geometry of the ce. ment sample Minigasrig As mentioned above this work was carried out to. investigate gas migration and early time cement hydration. G 1 Initially a PVC version of the minigasrig was used at ambient. U conditions to verify the concept The principle of the cell with. The constant G is a geometrical factor which has to be deter a gas inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top is shown in. mined experimentally for each setup using an electrolyte with Fig 5 A differential pressure was applied between them to. known conductivity simulate the driving force behind gas migration the chosen. Several tests were done to find out more about the applica pressure was higher than the hydrostatic pressure of a water. bility of the method The first was to assure that there is no column but smaller than the cement hydrostatic pressure Sev. negative effect from the current on the cement curing This was eral electrode pairs were placed along the cell to detect and. done by running two parallel tests one with and one without track the gas migration front and metal endplates served as. conductivity measurement and using temperature evolution as current electrodes. a quality control As shown in Fig 2 there is no adverse effect These initial tests were successful and consequently a cell. from the current going through the cement The small tem based on the same concept was designed to study gas migra. perature difference is caused by a small calibration difference tion at high temperature and high pressure HTHP This ver. between the two sensors Another test at 90 C produced the sion can be used at temperatures up 180 C and pressures up to. same result 20 bars The HTHP cell has a 5 cm inner diameter and a height. Conductivity is highly sensitive to temperature and in or up to 80 cm The cell is modular consisting of several sections. der to compare slurries at different temperatures a correction that can be stacked on top of each other see Fig 6 Depend. has to be applied In our study corrections have been done by ing on the preferred test conditions the cell can be used with a. using the Arps8 equation for normalising the conductivity to different number of sections The sections were electrically. 25 C insulated by Viton rubber sleeves and connected together with. In some cases the 2 electrode setup to the left in Fig 1 may Teflon rings which carried the electrodes Usage of rubber. produce false readings because of the contact resistance be sleeves enabled applying confining pressure to avoid microan. tween electrodes and testing material This additional resis nulus between cement and wall The rig was used successfully. tance introduces an extra artificial voltage drop which lead to up to 140 C but at 180 C some problems with the rubber. errors This problem can be avoided by using 4 electrodes as sleeves were observed. shown in the right hand of Fig 1 two for current and two for. measuring the voltage drop To find out if this was a problem. SPE 56539 A LABORATORY STUDY ON OILWELL CEMENT AND ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY 3. ECMIC The Electrical Conductivity Measurements In Ce One of the most interesting observations can be found in. ment cell ECMIC is shown in Figs 7 and 8 In this cell the Fig 16 which investigated the influence of manganese oxide. current flows radially between the center electrode and the and silica fume on curing of a 150 C slurry 9 The manganese. circumference of the cell The center electrode includes a tem oxide is used as weight material and the silica fume as an anti. perature sensor and the bottom of the cell is electrically insu gas migration additive where the minute silica particles fill the. lated with a rubber mat It has a diameter of 85 mm and the pore space between the cement grains The first test was run. height is 50 mm The cell was designed for pressures up to 20 with both additives then followed by in turn removing one. bars and temperatures up to 200 C Some contact problems additive at a time Both additives were removed in the last test. were experienced between the outer wall and the cement From the figure it is evident that silica fume has a dramatic. caused by cement shrinkage This problem was solved by at impact on the curing behaviour reducing the time between. taching a brass foil along the outer circumference This was initial and final set to almost nothing Another experiment at. successful but increased the preparation time somewhat 140 C exhibited the same behaviour A short transition period. will reduce the risk of gas migration This is shown later. Glass test tube Ever in the search for better solutions a dis When used together with silica fume it seems that the. posable cell in the form of a glass test tube was introduced weight material acts as an accelerator see Fig 16 The main. The principle is shown in Fig 9 The outer diameter is 30 mm difference between the two slurries in Fig 14 apart from the. and the height is 200 mm High temperature silicone insulated small temperature difference is that the 142 C slurry includes. wire was used with the non insulated ends serving as elec manganese oxide and almost twice as much retarder as the. trodes making this a 2 electrode setup The test tube was 136 C slurry which do not have any weight material The. placed inside a HTHP consistometer the type without a mag amounts of retarder and the small temperature difference can. netic coupling at the top increasing the pressure range signifi not fully explain that the setting behaviour of the two slurries. cantly One drawback is the lower temperature evolution inside are almost identical again indicating that manganese oxide. the cement because both the cement volume and test tube di counteracts the increased amount of retarder in the 142 C. ameter are smaller than for the cells above Another drawback slurry i e it acts as an accelerator. is that the chosen disposable temperature sensors do not with Fig 13 shows the impact of low and medium temperature. stand temperatures above around 150 C retarders on two 136 C slurries The clear difference is worth. noting bearing in mind that a short transition time is beneficial. Results and Discussion for impeding gas migration None of the two slurries in Fig 15. The test program comprised around 40 tests using both neat contain silica fume but the silica flour was replaced by calcite. cement mixes and commercial cement slurries The mixing flour CaCO3 in the second test Like silica fume calcite. procedure was according to the recommendation of API 1 In seems to cause rapid curing. this section some of our results and observations are presented Of course retarders and other additives influence the curing. and discussed behaviour to a large extent but looking at Figs 11 to 19 we. feel that some of the behaviour may be attributed to tempera. Consistency A magnetic stirrer has been used together with ture When using silica fume all slurries except Figs 11 15. the Ecmic cell Fig 6 as a consistency measurement The stir and partly 16 there seems to be a very rapid curing at 140. rer was placed underneath the cell and a magnetic stirring pin. 150 C whereas at 165 C Fig 17 the hardening is slow In. 50 7 5 mm was placed inside As the power of the electric creasing the temperature further seems to accelerate curing. motor is more or less constant the RPM will decrease when. producing faster curing at 180 C fig 18 and even faster. the cement is thickening The RPM was measured manually by. again at 195 C Fig 19, a handheld tachometer Results from an experiment at 140 C is. The results and observations above build on a limited set of. shown in Fig 10 which clearly shows the start of thickening. tests and they should be verified by a systematic investigation. The increasing RPM up to 1 5 hours is probably caused by. of additives over the temperature range However our findings. heating leading to a lower cement viscosity It also worth not. so far underline the valuable data gathered from electrical con. ing that thickening occurs before the hydration starts as indi. ductivity curves, cated by temperature and conductivity curves. And as an anecdotal aside some slurries exhibit two tem. perature peaks e g in Fig 18 at around 7 and 12 hours and. Additives No detailed investigation on additives were carried. others only one These were nicknamed camel and drome. out but several findings can be seen in the results A repre. dary slurries respectively, sentative selection covering the temperature range from ambi.
ent conditions and up to 195 C are presented in Figs 11 to 19. Gas migration The minigasrig was used to investigate gas. where the slurries are shown in order of increasing tempera migration in the early setting period of the cement slurry A. ture All slurries except the first Fig 11 are commercial result from a neat slurry test at ambient conditions in the PVC. cell is shown in Fig 20 where the gas front is clearly seen as it. 4 K R BACKE S K LYOMOV O B LILE SPE 56539, migrates upwards through the cement column Electrode pair 1 tion the risk of gas migration is reduced with a rapidly set. is lowermost while 5 is at the top Some high temperature ting slurry. commercial slurries were tested as well and all proved to be 5 Based on these findings we feel that electrical conductivity. tight This corresponds to the results from the larger gas rig of has the potential to be used in the laboratory as a supple. Jamth et al 10 11 using the same slurry recipes ment to the equipment recommended by API as well as in. The conductivity data were compared to gas migration tests the field to control the slurry quality during cementing. run in the rig of Jamth et al 10 11 The results are shown in Fig. 21 where the conductivity is normalised to the conductivity Nomenclature. level just before the hydration starts e g at 8 9 hours in Fig G geometric constant 1 L 1 m. 12 This is done in order to be able to compare slurries with I electric current q t A. different initial conductivities It was found that the maximum U electric potential difference mL2 qt2 V. normalised decline rate exhibited a good correlation except electrical conductivity tq2 mL3 S m. that there seems to be an anomaly for 90 C slurries a high. decline rate i e a short transition period will reduce the like References. lihood for gas migration 1 Spec 10 Specification for Materials and Testing for Well Ce. ments fifth edition API Dallas 1990, Compressive strength There is not much literature on elec 2 Backe K R Lile O B Lyomov S K Elvebakk H and. Skalle P Characterising curing cement slurries by permeabil. trical conductivity and cement strength Although not directly. ity tensile strength and shrinkage paper SPE 38267 presented. connected to cement Ishchuk et al 4 have investigated the con at the 1997 SPE Western Regional Meeting Long Beach Cali. No work has been presented on oil well cement and con ductivity but a fair amount of literature exists on conductivity vs concrete and other cement applications In addition to pre senting their own results Christensen et al 3 also include an extensive review of previous work in the beginning electrical

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