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A Framework for Dual Protocol Adaptive Video Streaming
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International Journal of Engineering Research Technology IJERT. ISSN 2278 0181,Vol 3 Issue 5 May 2014, II RELATED WORK Server side adaptation solves the problem of high. processing power expectation from the mobile devices but it. A Adaptive Bitrate Streaming has the disadvantage of limited scalability This is due to the. Adaptive Bitrate Streaming abbreviated as ABR is an. emerging area of research in the field of video streaming fact that as the number of mobile users streaming form the. Adaptive video streaming as the name indicates refers to the server increase the processing required for ensuring adaptive. streaming of video in a manner in which the video adjusts streaming also increases and this may overburden the server. itself to the varying bandwidth conditions By adjusting we leading to freeze of server suspending of the operations and. mean that the video stream is reduced in size to accommodate hence interruptions in the video streaming service Although. to the bandwidth of the link at that particular instant The this problem can be solved by upgrading server hardware this. reduction in size may be performed by reducing the quality of approach is not economically viable Hence server side. the stream reducing the frame rate of the stream etc In adaptation should also be implemented after careful. essence we attempt to reduce the bit rate of the video stream in consideration and with a future vision in perspective. adaptive streaming, Many technologies have been developed that implement. adaptive video streaming with varying degrees 1 3 5 Some of B Apple HTTP Live Streaming. the noteworthy researches carried out in this area include HTTP Live Streaming can be abbreviated as HLS It. Microsoft s Smooth Streaming requiring their Silverlight is a technology developed by Apple Inc in an attempt to solve. plugin Apple s HTTP Live Streaming Adobe s RTMP flash the buffering problem in streaming video to mobile devices. streaming Quavlive Smooth Streaming et al Each one of these HLS works by creating multiple streaming files of the video to. technologies has its own advantages and disadvantages also be streamed with different bitrates and quality Also the entire. requiring different hardware in case of each technology There video is segmented into a number of small chunks typically of. are also open source implementations that have been developed ten second duration In the beginning a stream of a particular. for some of the above mentioned technologies The Apple HLS moderate quality is streamed to the mobile device The client. and Adobe RTMP streaming are discussed in separate sections then uses its own heuristics to calculate the bandwidth on its. given below side and requests the appropriate stream fir that bandwidth for. The video formats that are primarily used for adaptive the next time interval Each stream has a manifest file in. video streaming include H 264 AVC H 264 SVC FLV etc m3u8 format which indicates the bit rate of the stream and the. H 264 AVC and H 264 SVC have also been discussed maximum and minimum bandwidth which can be used to. separately further In most cases these formats are converted comfortably accommodate the stream Once the client has. into raw formats of RGB and YUV for the purpose of applying determined the available bandwidth on its side it parses the. adaptivity Also adaptive streaming also requires additional. m3u8 file and determines the most appropriate video stream. processing power and storage space also on the server side and requests the streaming server for it In this way adaptation. Hence it is important to strike a balance between the need of of the video takes place in HLS streaming Hence the video. resources and the obtained advantage of the technology as over that needs to be played always has a URL pointing to the. consumption of resources in case of any technology m3u8 manifest file for that particular video The biggest. irrespective of how advantageous it may be will be null and advantage of HLS streaming is that it allows the use of an. void without any significant use ordinary HTTP server to serve the streaming video without the. Adaptation can take place at two places 1 On the client need of special media servers which have the problem of not. side 2 On the server side Client side adaptation techniques being able to stream through firewalls. basically work by monitoring the client side bandwidth and. then sending a request to the streaming server to stream the. most appropriate video that has a bit rate that matches the client C Adobe RTMP Streaming. side bandwidth Server side adaptation techniques basically RTMP stands for Real Time Messaging Protocol It is a. work by selecting a particular video to stream splitting the propriety protocol developed by Adobe in order to support live. video into a number of sub streams of different quality and streaming using the flash video format It is based on the Real. then streaming the most appropriate sub stream that matches Time Streaming Protocol RTSP As in case of RTSP RTMP. the client bandwidth Both the method have its own share of requires a dedicated media server to deliver the streaming. good and bad and hence it requires great prudence to select the video to the clients Adobe uses the Adobe Flash Media Server. most appropriate method depending on the application and on the server side to deliver RTMP streamed video The URL. scenario where it has to be applied for streaming the video contains the RTMP protocol specifier. Client side adaptation is usually coupled with reduced in the beginning H 264 videos can also be streamed using the. complexity on the server side thus allowing us to use even RTMP protocol along with flash videos RTMP supports. commodity hardware to stream videos However it comes with adaptive bit rate streaming by taking a video decoding it into. the catch that the device to which the video is streamed should raw format splitting the raw video into a number of sub. have a high processing capability and hence expects a certain streams with one base sub stream and the rest enhancement. degree of work to be performed by the mobile device also layer sub streams and selecting the appropriate number of. Although this is not much of an issue with smartphones and enhancement layer subs streams to be sent along with the base. current generation of mobile devices yet there is the problem stream according to the bandwidth of the link After the total. of battery drain to be considered number of sub streams have been selected the sub streams are. IJERTV3IS051719 www ijert org 1855, International Journal of Engineering Research Technology IJERT. ISSN 2278 0181,Vol 3 Issue 5 May 2014, again encoded and the resulting video stream is sent via NAL B RTSP Server. Network Abstraction Layer Packets using an RSTP server The function of the RTSP server is similar to the HTTP. The client can make use of a suitable video player that server This module implements a minimal RTSP server that. supports RTMP streaming to play the videos handles all the video requests and uses the RTMP protocol for. streaming Hence these two modules are core to the supporting. D H 264 Advanced Video Coding of the dual protocols for video streaming Similar to the HTTP. server module this module also has the start stop and run. The H 264 Advanced Video Coding AVC is a video, compression standard also known as H 264 MPEG 4 Part 10.
It is the most popular video compression standard used today. for the recording compression and distributing of video C MP4 Config. content It was developed by the ITU T Video Coding Experts This module helps in getting the SPS Sequence Parameter. Group VCEG together with the ISO IEC JTC1 Moving Set and PPS Picture Parameter Set parameters from the. Picture Experts Group MPEG It is a block oriented motion video to be played The two entities in the H 264 bit stream. compensation based video compression standard This the Sequence Parameter Set SPS and the Picture Parameter. standard is used to encode the video for Blu Ray discs H 264 Set PPS Both entities contain information that a H 264. is a lossy compression technique however the compression decoder needs to decode the video data for example the. algorithms are extremely efficient and hence the loss becomes resolution and frame rate of the video The H 264 bit stream. imperceptible The standard also mentions a number of contains a sequence of Network Abstraction Layer NAL. profiles which is the different ways of encoding the video and units The SPS and PPS are both types of NAL units The SPS. in different resolutions and qualities NAL unit contains parameters that apply to a series of. consecutive coded video pictures referred to as a coded. E H 264 Scalable Video Coding video sequence in the H 264 standard The PPS NAL unit. contains parameters that apply to the decoding of one or more. The H 264 Scalable Video Coding SVC is an extension of. individual pictures inside a coded video sequence, the H 264 AVC standard the Annex G extension of it SVC. was developed to standardize a video stream that contains a. number of bit streams The sub stream can represent a lower D MP4 Parser. spatial resolution smaller screen lower temporal resolution As the name suggests this module parses the contents of an. lower frame rate or lower quality video stream H 264 AVC MP4 file The MP4 file has a tree structure where each node. was developed jointly by ITU T and ISO IEC JTC 1 Unlike. has a name and a size It also has functions to find SPS and. the H 264 AVC which supports only a single video stream PPS parameters that are them sent to MP4Config It also has. SVC can support multiple bit streams and hence it can be used the stsdBox which contains video compression related. for adaptive bit rate streaming Among the bit streams one information regarding the decoding format used Also it. particular stream becomes the base quality stream a certain contains multiple tracks for each media type it contains. minimum quality and the rest of the bit streams are additional. qualities which may be added to the base stream to further. enhance the quality provided the bandwidth capacity allows E H 264 Stream. for it This module is essentially related to the video streaming. portion The H 264 is a standard for video encoding and. III DUAL PROTOCOL VIDEO STREAMING decoding and provides compression at a better quality than. FRAMEWORK previous technologies The H 264 Stream is derived from. We have programmed the framework in Java Any object Video Stream module which in turn is derived from Media. oriented language of choice can be used for programming the Stream module Its function is to start stop or prepare the. same A brief description of the different modules stream of data video that is being transmitted to client But. implemented in the framework is given below before transmission encoding or decoding has to be done. which is done by the H 264 packetizer,A Basic HTTP Server. This module performs the functions that a server is F AAC Stream. expected to do When a client requests for a service here a This is the audio version of H 264 Stream in the sense it. request for a video to be played that is specified by the URL helps in streaming audio supporting compression and. the server has to handle this request Hence this Basic HTTP decompression by calling the AAC ADTS Packetizer module. Server module has request handlers that can be specified by AAC Stream essentially has functions that help to start stop. the programmers depending on the request type and the and prepare the stream audio before transmission. context in which the server is being used It also includes. functions to start stop and run the server, This module is used to create a session between the client. and the server before streaming starts between them Stream. IJERTV3IS051719 www ijert org 1856, International Journal of Engineering Research Technology IJERT. ISSN 2278 0181,Vol 3 Issue 5 May 2014, is referred to as track here Two types of tracks namely audio requests for service The server on the other hand carries on.
and video are to be accommodated A session essentially is a with the job of listening on the port checking. socket creation to which the client attaches himself and. periodically if any client is requesting service and if yes it On the server side too the framework can provide much. services the client needed flexibility as a normal HTTP server can be used to. store and serve the videos which is economically very. beneficial and also helps in tackling security issues such as the. H H 264 Packetizer, streaming of videos through firewalls Also the framework can. Here the packetization of stream data is done data in the be used with a dedicated media server which may be required. form of NAL units are received from the H264Stream and in certain situations where the number of users using the. these are then packetized into units which have data not more streaming service is large and hence to ensure the supporting. than 1400 bytes Sometimes the NAL units could be larger of a large number of users a normal HTTP server would prove. than expected in such cases it is split into appropriate number to be inefficient The overall architecture of the framework is. of units and sent shown in Fig 2 Fig 3 gives the sequence diagram of a user. interacting with the video streaming framework to play a. I AAC ADTS Packetizer video, This is the packetization module in case of audio The IV EXTENSION OF FRAMEWORK. principles remain the same as far as packetizing audio and As part of extending the framework to support useful. video are concerned The change however is seen in the packet functionality we have successfully implemented live streaming. size which is 100 bytes Again any packet that is larger than from a mobile device to the cloud and this stream is made. average size is split into appropriate sized packets accessible to any device capable of playing RTMP videos This. extension takes the stream from the camera of the mobile. Hence the above mentioned modules form the proposed device and stores the video on the cloud Then application of. framework and based on the above elucidation of each of the adaptivity to it takes place in the same manner a VOD Video. modules it is easy to see how the framework can be employed On Demand video is adapted and streamed Thus it enables. to stream videos The main advantage of the proposed mobile devices to easily use their camera to perform a live. framework is the fact that it can be used to support a wide video broadcast with minimal resources needed. variety of devices and is not restricted to devices The programming for the prototype was done using the. manufactured by a particular set of manufacturers This is due Adobe Creative Cloud Flash SDK The mobile device platform. to the fact that it support two protocols for video streaming that was targeted was Android due to the huge majority of its. and hence can cover a whole gamut of devices The flow of. number of users The usage of the extension is as follows. control among the modules is shown in Fig 1 Firstly the mobile device user installs the application as an apk. file onto his mobile device Since the Adobe Creative Cloud. Flash SDK was used to build the application it is necessary to. install Adobe AIR Adobe Integrated Runtime in order to use. the application After the following steps the user opens the. application, The user interface of the application is such that a text box. is provided for the user to enter the URL of the cloud server to. which he wishes to store the video After connecting to the. server the user then specifies a name he wishes to give to that. particular stream and then starts recording from his devices. camera by pressing the record button This stream can be. accessed from any supporting device with suitable software by. specifying the URL of the cloud server followed by the name. of the stream, Hence this prototype was mainly developed to test the ease. with which the framework could be extended to support. additional functionality and we have implemented the above. functionality with minimum programming effort and at the. same time maintaining the clean and simple slate keeping in. mind which the framework was designed Thus the framework. has a great scope for further extension and enhancement and. can be considered as a playground for researchers and. engineers alike Also this prototype demonstrates the. innumerable number of ways in which the framework can. leverage cloud computing and make its best use to improve all. types of video streaming be it live or on demand,Fig 1 Flow of control between modules.
IJERTV3IS051719 www ijert org 1857, International Journal of Engineering Research Technology IJERT. ISSN 2278 0181,Vol 3 Issue 5 May 2014, Fig 2 Architecture of the dual protocol video streaming framework. Fig 3 Sequence diagram of a user interacting with the framework. IJERTV3IS051719 www ijert org 1858, International Journal of Engineering Research Technology IJERT. ISSN 2278 0181,Vol 3 Issue 5 May 2014, the framework can be extended to include more useful. V PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS AND CONCLUSION functionality. As part of assessing the performance of the prototype we. tested the framework using Amazon EC2 cloud service REFERENCES. Elastic Cloud Compute and used the framework to stream. videos on all types of mobile devices supporting video 1 Xiafoei Wang Min Chen Ted Taekyoung Kwon Laurence T Yang and. Victor C M Leung AMES Cloud A Framework of Adaptive Mobile. playback We used videos ranging from Standard Definition Video Streaming and Efficient Social Video Sharing in Clouds IEEE. SD to High Definition HD for streaming Practical tests Transactions On Multimedia Vol 15 No 4 June 2013. showed that using 3G network all the videos played on the 2 Mahadev Satyanarayanan Bahl P Caceres R and Davies N The. mobile device smoothly without interruptions and buffering Case for VM Based Cloudlets in Mobile Computing Pervasive. both using HLS streaming as well as RTMP streaming Hence Computing IEEE Volume 8 Issue 4 Oct Dec 2009. the performance was definitely improved compared to normal 3 Weiwen Zhang Nanyang Technol Yonggang Wen Zhenzhong Chen. and Khisti A QoE Driven Cache Management for HTTP Adaptive. streaming which clearly buffers when streaming HD videos Bit Rate Streaming Over Wireless Networks in Multimedia IEEE. Transactions Volume 15 Issue 6 Oct 2013, As part of future improvement in areas related to the.
4 Gopalakrishnan V Jana R Seungjoon Lee Misra V Ramakrishnan. framework it was determined that the seek performance when K K and Rubenstein D Joint Family Enabling adaptive bitrate. it comes to the videos is poor and has some latency Also the streaming in peer to peer video on demand IEEE Transactions Oct. framework can be furthered to support streaming of content 2013. using 2G networks Also the framework can be made more 5 Xiaoling Qiu Davis Haiping Liu Deshi Li Song Zhang Ghosal D. compatible with a wide range of cloud service providers and Mukherjee B Optimizing HTTP based Adaptive Video Streaming. for wireless access networks IEEE 2010 Conference 26 28 Ict 2013. Researchers can also explore the various possibilities in which.

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