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two operational sonar equipments used by the Navy at the outbreak of. World War II 1 Hayes sea data collection is described by Gary Weir. from the U S Navy Historical Center 2 To the universal acclaim of the. scientific community Hayes had then used his invention the sonic depth. finder SDF 3 to make the first complete bottom profile of any ocean. during the June 1922 transatlantic crossing of the destroyer Stewart. DD224 from Newport Rhode Island to Gibraltar With Hayes on. board the Stewart made 900 soundings of the ocean to depths beyond. three thousand feet The news of this accomplishment went through the. scientific community like a bolt of lightning The Navy s new. instrument gave scientists their first look at the configuration of the ocean. floor in all its irregularity Sound now at last began to reveal what years of. work with rope and wire soundings lines had only suggested Civilian. science quickly concluded that the number and range of naval vessels as. well as the revolutionary potential of the SDF made the U S Navy an. indispensable partner in the exploration of the ocean. Included here is a tribute to Dr Hayes on the occasion of the. dedication of the Harvey C Hayes Room of Quarter A at the Naval. Research Laboratory May 21 1999, the enemy has rendered the U boat ineffective not by. superior tactics or strategy but through superiority in the. field of science which finds its expression in the modern. battle weapon detection Admiral Karl Doenitz, These are among the highest words of tribute to the genius and. inventiveness of the Navy s acoustic pioneers spearheaded by Dr Harvey. Cornelius Hayes after whom the USNS Hayes 4 is named in a. recovered report by Karl Doenitz Grand Admiral of the German Navy. during World War II 5, Currently Patent Office searches prior to 1975 cannot be searched. by inventor for the interested reader we list the patent numbers of 73. patents awarded to Harvey C Hayes Copies of these patents can be. obtained at http www uspto gov or http www pat2pdf org. Washington Academy of Sciences, Patents Issued to Harvey C Hayes 1923 1944. 1 470 733 1 632 331 1 743 071 1 900 015 2 015 674, 2 434 926 1 483 547 1 632 332 1 749 284 1 910 434.
2 064 911 2 447 333 1 512 222 1 636 510 1 749 285, 1 923 088 2 098 240 2 459 162 1 525 182 1 649 113. 1 751 035 1 951 358 2 105 479 2 472 107 1 530 176, 1 671 719 1 755 583 1 966 446 2 041 710 2 474 842. 1 532 108 1 681 982 1 757 938 1 972 889 2 292 376, 2 517 565 1 551 105 1 692 119 1 784 439 1 974 422. 2 374 637 2 527 217 1 557 161 1 704 084 1 787 536, 1 980 993 2 405 575 2 559 618 1 565 361 1 709 573. 1 792 013 1 985 251 2 406 767 2 561 368 1 577 254, 1 729 383 1 814 444 1 995 305 2 411 541 3 319 735.
1 584 451 1 729 579 1 847 243 2 000 948 2 424 030, 3 715 982 1 593 972 1 729 595 1 860 740 2 005 741. 2 428 799 1 624 946 1 742 704 1 892 147 2 008 713, References. 1 J Schultz Family donates collection highlighting distinguished. scientific career of Dr Harvey C Hayes Labstracts U S Government. Printing Office 19285 361 1053 June7 1999, 2 G Weir Surviving the Peace The Advent of American Naval. Oceanography 1914 1924 Naval War College Review V L No 4. Autumn 1997, 3 H C Hayes The sonic depth finder Proceed Amer Philosophical. Society V LXIII No 1 pp 134 150 1924, 4 USNS Hayes T AGOR 16 commissioned July 2 1970.
5 NRL Brochure for the occasion of the dedication of the Harvey C. Hayes Room of Quarters A at the Naval Research Laboratory May 21. This page intentionally blank, Washington Academy of Sciences. MEASURING OCEAN DEPTHS BY ACOUSTICAL, HARVEY C HAYES Ph D. Research Physicist U S Navy, The possibility of measuring ocean depths by acoustical methods. has been recognized for a number of years and numerous methods and. devices developed and designed for this purpose are listed in the patent. office Most of these devices attempt to determine the depth in terms of. the time required for a sound signal to travel to the sea bottom and reflect. back again to the surface, One of the first patents pertaining to this art was granted to A F. Eells of Boston Massachusetts wherein he was allowed two broad claims. covering the method of determining depths by measuring the time. intervening between the transmitting of a sound signal near the sea surface. and the return of its echo from the sea bottom Since then numerous. patents have been taken out covering specific apparatus designed for. measuring this time interval but none of these devices has proved to be. practical for the reason that they have failed in most cases to measure the. time interval in question with sufficient reliability and accuracy and in. many cases have proved to be too delicate to withstand the adverse. conditions often met with on sea going vessels and too complicated to be. operated by a ship s personnel A brief description of some of these. devices follows Fig 1 shows the principle of operation of a sounding. device invented by Reginald A Fessenden 2 Numeral 1 represents a disc. made of insulating material that is rotated at a uniform speed by motor 2. The disc carries a conducting segment 3 that closes the electrical circuit. through a submarine sound transmitter 4 when it passes beneath brushes. 5 thereby sending out a sound signal This segment also closes the. circuit through a telephone receiver 6 when it passes across the brushes. 7 If the echo of the signal meets the microphone or other type of sound. receiver represented by numeral 8 at the instant segment 3 short circuits. brushes 7 it will be heard in the telephone receiver 6 and the time of. Presented at the Stated Meeting of the Institute held Wednesday March 21 1923. Reprinted by permission from The Franklin Institute The Journal of The Franklin. Institute Vol 197 No 3 pp 323 354 March 1924, For a more complete description of the Fessenden depth sounding apparatus see U S.
Patent No 1 217 585, sound transmit from the transmitter to the receiver by wav of reflection. from the sea bottom will be equal to the time required for segment 3 to. travel the angular distance subtended between the two pairs of brushes and. indicated by the pointer 9 on the scale 10 This condition is brought. about by rotating brushes 7 about the insulating disc 1 by means of the. In practice the disc must be rotated at considerable speed or the. angle swept out by the segment while the sound travels to the sea bottom. and back will be too small to measure with sufficient accuracy This. results in sending out sound signals in rapid succession and the return of. echoes from the sea bottom in still more rapid succession for the reason. that a sound signal usually echoes back and forth between the surface and. sea bottom several times before its energy is absorbed Under such. conditions sound can be heard in the telephone for numerous settings of. the brushes 7 and the relation between the depth and the scale reading. becomes indefinite, Another device for measuring this time interval makes use of an. electromagnetic recorder This device illustrated in principle in Fig 2. attempts to determine the short time intervals involved in taking shallow. soundings by recording the transmitted signal and its returning echo on the. magnetic tape 1 while it is driven rapidly by means of variable speed. Washington Academy of Sciences, motors 2 and then measuring the time interval between the two records. when the tape is run at a much slower speed This measured time interval. multiplied by the ratio of the reduced speed to the recording speed gives. the time interval between signal and echo In the figure numeral 3. represents the recording and reproducing magnets These also serve for. erasing the record Numeral 4 represents a double throw double pole. switch by means of which magnets 3 can be inductively connected with. transmitter 5 and receiver 6 for recording the signal and its echo or. with the telephone head set 7 for hearing the reproduced record The. rheostat for controlling the speed of the motors is indicated by numeral 8. This method while excellent from the standpoint of theory has not proved. to be practical for the following reasons, a The magnetic tape does not record the signals unless their intensity. is above a certain threshold value which is comparatively high. and the echoes cannot be kept above this value over regions where. the coefficient of reflection of the sea bottom is low or over. regions where the depth is great, b The local disturbing noises always present on shipboard are.
comparatively intense and their record ofttimes distorts the record. of the signals and echoes to such an extent that they cannot be. readily recognized and as a result the time interval cannot be. accurately measured, c It is difficult to determine accurately the ratio between the. reproducing and recording speeds of the motor, d The time interval as measured at the retarded speed cannot be. determined with a high degree of accuracy for the reason that the. record of both the signal and the echo then becomes less sharply. defined and although this method of determining the short interval. between signal and echo results in some gain in accuracy the gain. is not proportional to the ratio between the recording and. reproducing speeds, e Finally the method is too slow to give soundings on short notice as. is ofttimes desirable when a ship is in dangerous waters. Samuel Spitz of Oakland California has attempted to measure. ocean depths with apparatus that first records the signal and its echo on a. magnetic tape and then amplifies the reproduced record He utilizes this. increased electrical output to operate a complicated system of relays and. magnetic clutches and claims to accurately record by means of a pointer. and dial the depth corresponding to the time interval between signal and. echo as recorded on the tape His method and apparatus as disclosed in. U S Patent 1 409 794 would appear to have the inherent weaknesses of. the magnetic tape method plus the difficulties and uncertainties that are. always present to a greater or less degree in complicated relay systems. But even if the relays should function perfectly it would seem that the. local disturbing noises caused by propellers auxiliary machinery and. slapping of waves which no matter how selective the receiving system. may be are recorded on the magnetic tape to some extent would ofttimes. trigger off the automatic recording apparatus and give erroneous records. of depth that might be misleading A depth sounding device is worse than. useless unless it can be absolutely depended upon to give reliable. sounding data at all times, Alexander Behm of Kiel Germany started work on the problem. of measuring ocean depths by means of sound waves about twelve years. ago His first efforts were devoted to methods that involved measuring the. time interval between signal and echo Recognizing the inherent. difficulties in making such measurements he turned his attention to the. possibility of making depth determinations by measuring the intensity of. the echo His method of doing this can be understood in connection with. Fig 3 wherein numeral 1 represents a submarine sound transmitter. designed to produce a fairly pure sound of constant intensity and pitch. The sound passes from the transmitter to the sea bottom and a portion. Washington Academy of Sciences, reflects back to the receiver represented by numeral 2 where by acting.
upon a resonant chamber it causes a tuning fork to vibrate He measures. the intensity of the echo in terms of the amplitude of vibration of a small. bead carried by one prong of the fork and observes the amplitude of its. motion by means of a microscope And since the intensity of the echo and. the amplitude of vibration of the fork are each a function of the depth he. calibrates the microscope scale directly in terms of depth. While this method avoids the difficulties encountered in measuring. short time intervals it introduces others that are equally hard to overcome. and one that cannot be overcome It is very difficult to generate a sound. having constant intensity and pitch under various operating conditions. and it is equally difficult to keep a receiver accurately tuned to this pitch. and of unvarying sensitivity It is probable that Doctor Behm has gone far. toward overcoming these two difficulties but we fail to see how he can. make allowance for the variations of the coefficient of reflection of the. sea bottom where according to our observations this factor may change. as much as 25 per cent over comparatively short distances. It is probable that Doctor Behm fully recognized these weaknesses. in his method and apparatus for he later resumed his efforts to measure the. time between signal and echo and has finally succeeded in making this. measurement with a high degree of accuracy with comparatively simple. and rugged apparatus His transmitter represented by numeral 1 of Fig 4. consists of a tube extended through the ship s skin and the sound signal is. produced by exploding a cartridge that has been slipped into position in. this tube The cartridge is fired electrically by closing a key mounted. on or near the recording apparatus which is located in the chart house or. on the bridge The receiver is mounted in a similar tube numeral 2. projecting from the opposite side of the ship s hull where. 39 Fall 2007 A FAMILY OF SCIENTISTS IN HONOR AND MEMORY of one of our own the Washington Academy of Sciences takes pride in presenting a reprint of a paper by Harvey C Hayes a member of the WAS more than half a century ago

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