A Designer S Guide To Instrumentation Amplifiers 3rd Edition-Books Pdf

A Designer s Guide to Instrumentation Amplifiers 3rd Edition
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A DESIGNER S GUIDE TO, INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIERS, 3RD Edition. Charles Kitchin and Lew Counts, All rights reserved This publication or parts thereof may not be. reproduced in any form without permission of the copyright owner. Information furnished by Analog Devices Inc is believed to be. accurate and reliable However no responsibility is assumed by. Analog Devices Inc for its use, Analog Devices Inc makes no representation that the interconnec. tion of its circuits as described herein will not infringe on existing or. future patent rights nor do the descriptions contained herein imply. the granting of licenses to make use or sell equipment constructed. in accordance therewith, Specifications and prices are subject to change without notice. 2006 Analog Devices Inc Printed in the U S A, G02678 15 9 06 B.
TABLE OF CONTENTS, CHAPTER I IN AMP BASICS 1 1, Introduction 1 1. IN AMPS vs OP AMPS WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES 1 1, Signal Amplification and Common Mode Rejection 1 1. Common Mode Rejection Op Amp vs In Amp 1 3, Difference Amplifiers 1 5. WHERE are in amps and Difference amps used 1 5, Data Acquisition 1 5. Medical Instrumentation 1 6, Monitor and Control Electronics 1 6.
Software Programmable Applications 1 6, Audio Applications 1 6. High Speed Signal Conditioning 1 6, Video Applications 1 6. Power Control Applications 1 6, IN AMPS AN EXTERNAL VIEW 1 6. WHAT OTHER PROPERTIES DEFINE A HIGH QUALITY IN AMP 1 7. High AC and DC Common Mode Rejection 1 7, Low Offset Voltage and Offset Voltage Drift 1 7. A Matched High Input Impedance 1 8, Low Input Bias and Offset Current Errors 1 8.
Low Noise 1 8, Low Nonlinearity 1 8, Simple Gain Selection 1 8. Adequate Bandwidth 1 8, Differential to Single Ended Conversion 1 9. Rail to Rail Input and Output Swing 1 9, Power vs Bandwidth Slew Rate and Noise 1 9. CHAPTER II INSIDE AN INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIER 2 1. A Simple Op Amp Subtractor Provides an In Amp Function 2 1. Improving the Simple Subtractor with Input Buffering 2 1. The 3 Op Amp In Amp 2 2, 3 Op Amp In Amp Design Considerations 2 3. The Basic 2 Op Amp Instrumentation Amplifier 2 4, 2 Op Amp In Amps Common Mode Design Considerations for Single Supply Operation 2 5.
CHAPTER III MONOLITHIC INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIERS 3 1. Advantages Over Op Amp In Amps 3 1, Which to Use an In Amp or a Diff Amp 3 1. MONOLITHIC IN AMP DESIGN THE INSIDE STORY, High Performance In Amps 3 2. Low Cost In Amps 3 5, Pin Programmable Precise Gain In Amps 3 6. Auto Zeroing Instrumentation Amplifiers 3 8, Fixed Gain Low Drift In Amps 3 16. Monolithic In Amps Optimized for Single Supply Operation 3 17. Low Power Single Supply In Amps 3 19, Gain Programmable In Amps 3 20.
CHAPTER IV MONOLITHIC DIFFERENCE AMPLIFIERS 4 1, Difference Subtractor Amplifier Products 4 1. AD8205 Difference Amplifier 4 3, Gain Adjustment 4 6. High Frequency Differential Receiver Amplifiers 4 9. CHAPTER V APPLYING IN AMPS EFFECTIVELY 5 1, Dual Supply Operation 5 1. Single Supply Operation 5 1, The Need for True R R Devices in Low Voltage Single Supply IA Circuits 5 1. Power Supply Bypassing Decoupling and Stability Issues 5 1. THE IMPORTANCE OF AN INPUT GROUND RETURN 5 2, Providing Adequate Input and Output Swing Headroom When AC Coupling a.
Single Supply In Amp 5 3, Selecting and Matching RC Coupling Components 5 3. Properly Driving an In Amp s Reference Input 5 4, Cable Termination 5 5. Input Protection Basics For ADI In Amps 5 5, Input Protection from ESD and DC Overload 5 5. Adding External Protection Diodes 5 8, ESD and Transient Overload Protection 5 9. Design Issues Affecting DC Accuracy 5 9, Designing for the Lowest Possible Offset Voltage Drift 5 9.
Designing for the Lowest Possible Gain Drift 5 9, Practical Solutions 5 11. Option 1 Use a Better Quality Gain Resistor 5 11, Option 2 Use a Fixed Gain In Amp 5 11. RTI AND RTO ERRORS 5 11, Offset Error 5 12, Noise Errors 5 12. Reducing RFI Rectification Errors in In Amp Circuits 5 12. Designing Practical RFI Filters 5 12, Selecting RFI Input Filter Component Values Using a Cookbook Approach 5 14. Specific Design Examples 5 15, An RFI Circuit for AD620 Series In Amps 5 15.
An RFI Circuit for Micropower In Amps 5 15, An RFI Filter for the AD623 In Amp 5 16. AD8225 RFI Filter Circuit 5 16, An RFI Filter For The AD8555 Sensor Amplifier 5 17. In Amps with On Chip EMI RFI Filtering 5 17, Common Mode Filters Using X2Y Capacitors 5 19. Using Common Mode RF Chokes for In Amp RFI Filters 5 20. RFI TESTING 5 21, USING LOW PASS FILTERING TO IMPROVE SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIO 5 21. EXTERNAL CMR AND SETTLING TIME ADJUSTMENTS 5 23, CHAPTER VI IN AMP AND DIFF AMP APPLICATIONS CIRCUITS 6 1.
A True Differential Output In Amp Circuit 6 1, DIFFERENCE AMPLIFIER MEASURES HIGH VOLTAGES 6 1. Precision Current Source 6 3, Integrator for PID Loop 6 3. Composite In Amp Circuit Has Excellent High Frequency CMR 6 3. Strain Gage Measurement Using An AC Excitation 6 5. Applications of the AD628 Precision Gain Block 6 6. Why Use a Gain Block IC 6 6, Standard Differential Input ADC Buffer Circuit with Single Pole LP Filter 6 6. Changing the Output Scale Factor 6 7, Using an External Resistor to Operate the AD628 at Gains Below 0 1 6 7. Differential Input Circuit with 2 Pole Low Pass Filtering 6 8. Using the AD628 to Create Precision Gain Blocks 6 9. Operating the AD628 as a 10 or 10 Precision Gain Block 6 9. Operating the AD628 at a Precision Gain of 11 6 10. Operating the AD628 at a Precision Gain of 1 6 10, Increased BW Gain Block of 9 91 Using Feedforward 6 11.
CURRENT TRANSMITTER REJECTS GROUND NOISE 6 12, High Level ADC Interface 6 13. A High Speed noninverting Summing Amplifier 6 15, High Voltage Monitor 6 16. PRECISION 48 V BUS MONITOR 6 17, HIGH SIDE CURRENT SENSE WITH A LOW SIDE SWITCH 6 18. HIGH SIDE CURRENT SENSE WITH A HIGH SIDE SWITCH 6 19. Motor Control 6 19, BRIDGE APPLICATIONS 6 19, A Classic Bridge Circuit 6 19. A Single Supply Data Acquisition System 6 20, A Low Dropout Bipolar Bridge Driver 6 20.
TRANSDUCER INTERFACE APPLICATIONS 6 21, ELECTROCARDIOGRAM SIGNAL CONDITIONING 6 21. REMOTE LOAD SENSING TECHNIQUE 6 24, A PRECISION VOLTAGE TO CURRENT CONVERTER 6 24. A CURRENT SENSOR INTERFACE 6 24, OUTPUT BUFFERING LOW POWER IN AMPS 6 25. A 4 TO 20 mA SINGLE SUPPLY RECEIVER 6 26, A SINGLE SUPPLY THERMOCOUPLE AMPLIFIER 6 26. SPECIALTY PRODUCTS 6 26, Chapter vii matching in amp circuits to modern adcs 7 1.
Calculating ADC Requirements 7 1, Matching ADI In Amps with Some Popular ADCs 7 2. High Speed Data Acquisition 7 7, A High Speed In Amp Circuit for Data Acquisition 7 8. APPENDIX A INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIER SPECIFICATIONS A 1. A Specifications Conditions A 3, B Common Mode Rejection A 3. C AC Common Mode Rejection A 3, D Voltage Offset A 3. E Input Bias and Offset Currents A 4, F Operating Voltage Range A 4.
G Quiescent Supply Current A 4, H Settling Time A 5. I Gain A 5, J Gain Range A 5, K Gain Error A 5, L Nonlinearity A 6. M Gain vs Temperature A 6, N Key Specifications for Single Supply In Amps A 6. Input and Output Voltage Swing A 6, APPENDIX B AMPLIFIERS SELECTION TABLE B 1. DEVICE INDEX D 1, BIBLIOGRAPHY FURTHER READING, Brokaw Paul An IC Amplifier Users Guide to Decoupling Grounding and Making Things Go Right for a.
Change Application Note AN 202 Rev B Analog Devices Inc 2000. Jung Walter IC Op Amp Cookbook 3rd ed Prentice Hall PTR 1986 1997 ISBN 0 13 889601 1. This can also be purchased on the Web at http dogbert abebooks com. Jung Walter Op Amp Applications Handbook Elsevier Newnes 2006. Jung Walter Op Amp Applications Analog Devices 2002 These seminar notes are an early version of the. Op Amp Applications Handbook You can download this Free on the Web at http www analog com library. analogdialogue archives 39 05 op amp applications handbook html. Kester Walt The Data Conversion Handbook Elsevier Newnes 2005 ISBN 0 7506 7841 0. Kester Walt Mixed Signal and DSP Design Techniques Elsevier Newnes 2003 ISBN 0 7506 7611 6. Kester Walt Practical Design Techniques for Sensor Signal Conditioning Analog Devices Inc 1999 Section 10. ISBN 0 916550 20 6 Available for download on the ADI website at www analog com. Moghimi Reza Bridge Type Sensor Measurements Are Enhanced by Auto Zeroed Instrumentation. Amplifiers with Digitally Programmable Gain and Offset Analog Dialogue May 3 2004 http www analog. com library analogdialogue archives 38 05 AD8555 html. Nash Eamon Errors and Error Budget Analysis in Instrumentation Amplifier Applications Application. Note AN 539 Analog Devices Inc, Nash Eamon A Practical Review of Common Mode and Instrumentation Amplifiers Sensors Magazine. Sheingold Dan ed Transducer Interface Handbook Analog Devices Inc 1980 pp 28 30. Wurcer Scott and Walter Jung Instrumentation Amplifiers Solve Unusual Design Problems Application. Note AN 245 Applications Reference Manual Analog Devices Inc. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS, We gratefully acknowledge the support and assistance of the following Moshe Gerstenhaber Scott. Wurcer Stephen Lee Bright Gao Scott Pavlik Henri Sino Alasdair Alexander Chau Tran Andrew. Tang Tom Botker Jim Bundock Sam Weinstein Chuck Whiting Matt Duff Eamon Nash Walt Kester. Alain Guery Chris Augusta Claire Croke Nicola O Byrne James Staley Ben Doubts Padraig Cooney. Leslie Vaughan Edie Kramer and Lynne Hulme of Analog Devices Also to David Anthony of X2Y. Technology and Steven Weir of Weir Design Engineering for the detailed applications information on. applying X2Y products for RFI suppression, And finally a special thank you to Analog Devices Communications Services team including John Galgay. Alex Wong Terry Gildred Kirsten Dickerson and Kelley Moretta. All brand or product names mentioned are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. Purchase of licensed I2C components of Analog Devices or one of its sublicensed Associated Companies conveys a license for the purchaser under the Philips. I2C Patent Rights to use these components in an I2C system provided that the system conforms to the I2C Standard Specification as defined by Philips. IN AMP BASICS, Introduction BRIDGE SUPPLY, Instrumentation amplifiers in amps are sometimes VOLTAGE VS. 0 01 F 0 33 F, misunderstood Not all amplifiers used in instrumenta.
tion applications are instrumentation amplifiers and by. no means are all in amps used only in instrumentation 1 8. applications In amps are used in many applications. from motor control to data acquisition to automotive 7 VOUT. The intent of this guide is to explain the fundamentals. of what an instrumentation amplifier is how it operates. and how and where to use it In addition several dif. ferent categories of instrumentation amplifiers are REF. addressed in this guide, IN AMPS vs OP AMPS WHAT ARE THE 0 01 F VS 0 33 F. DIFFERENCES, An instrumentation amplifier is a closed loop gain Figure 1 1 AD8221 bridge circuit. block that has a differential input and an output that In contrast if a standard op amp amplifier circuit were. is single ended with respect to a reference terminal used in this application it would simply amplify both the. Most commonly the impedances of the two input signal voltage and any dc noise or other common mode. terminals are balanced and have high values typically voltages As a result the signal would remain buried under. 109 or greater The input bias currents should also the dc offset and noise Because of this even the best. be low typically 1 nA to 50 nA As with op amps output op amps are far less effective in extracting weak signals. impedance is very low nominally only a few milliohms Figure 1 2 contrasts the differences between op amp and. at low frequencies in amp input characteristics, Unlike an op amp for which closed loop gain is de Signal Amplification and Common Mode Rejection. termined by external resistors connected between its An instrumentation amplifier is a device that amplifies. inverting input and its output an in amp employs an the difference between two input signal voltages while. internal feedback resistor network that is isolated from its rejecting any signals that are common to both inputs The. signal input terminals With the input signal applied across in amp therefore provides the very important function. the two differential inputs gain is either preset internally of extracting small signals from transducers and other. or is user set via pins by an internal or external gain signal sources. resistor which is also isolated from the signal inputs Common mode rejection CMR the property of. Figure 1 1 shows a bridge preamp circuit a typical in amp canceling out any signals that are common the same. application When sensing a signal the bridge resistor values potential on both inputs while amplifying any signals. change unbalancing the bridge and causing a change in that are differential a potential difference between the. differential voltage across the bridge The signal output inputs is the most important function an instrumenta. of the bridge is this differential voltage which connects tion amplifier provides Both dc and ac common mode. directly to the in amp s inputs In addition a constant dc rejection are important in amp specifications Any errors. voltage is also present on both lines This dc voltage will due to dc common mode voltage i e dc voltage present. A DESIGNER S GUIDE TO INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIERS by Charles Kitchin and Lew Counts 3RD Edition

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