A Comprehensive Review Of Microbial Electrochemical -Books Pdf

A comprehensive review of microbial electrochemical
17 Jan 2020 | 12 views | 0 downloads | 12 Pages | 1.22 MB

Share Pdf : A Comprehensive Review Of Microbial Electrochemical

Download and Preview : A Comprehensive Review Of Microbial Electrochemical


Report CopyRight/DMCA Form For : A Comprehensive Review Of Microbial Electrochemical



Transcription

H Wang Z J Ren Biotechnology Advances 31 2013 1796 1807 1797. dozens of functions have been discovered Almost all MESs share one inorganic electron donors mainly waste materials and transfer elec. common principle in the anode in which biodegradable substrates trons to the anode electrode The electrons can be captured directly. such as waste materials are oxidized by microorganisms and generate through an external circuit for electricity generation or used for chemi. electrical current The current can be captured directly for electricity cal production The microbial oxidation reaction in the anode chamber. generation microbial fuel cells MFCs Fornero et al 2010 Liu and is a shared principle for almost all MES reactors as shown in Table 1. Logan 2004 Ren et al 2007 or used to produce H2 and other value However how to use these electrons on the cathode side shows the. added chemicals microbial electrolysis cells MECs Cheng et al beauty of this platform technology because any reduction based reac. 2009 Liu et al 2010 Logan et al 2008 The electrons can also be tion can be realized in the cathode chamber which creates numerous. used in the cathode chamber to synthesize organic compounds micro possibilities Based on the different functions the MES platform has. bial electrosynthesis MES or remediate contaminants microbial been speci ed into many different names that some researchers name. remediation cells MRCs Aulenta et al 2008 Butler et al 2010 them MXCs where X stands for different applications Harnisch and. Gregory and Lovley 2009 Lovley and Nevin 2011 Rabaey and Schr der 2010 Torres et al 2010 Table 1 summarizes all the reactor. Rozendal 2010 The potential across the electrodes can also drive desa acronyms to date and demonstrates the shared principle on the anode. lination microbial desalination cells MDCs Cao et al 2009 Jacobson and the versatile functions on the cathode. et al 2011 Luo et al 2011 Luo et al 2012c Mehanna et al 2010 The Ideal anodic reactions in MESs generally include dynamic and effec. production of current associated with microbial catabolism was rst tive microbial activity and community higher substrate conversion rate. reported a century ago by Potter 1911 but research interests in this and electron transfer ef ciency and lower material and system costs. concept have only blossomed in the past decade resulting in an expo MESs employ a unique group of microbes called electrochemically ac. nential growth in the number of journal articles Fig 1 There are tive bacteria EAB exoelectrogen electricigen or anode respiring. several excellent reviews that provided information on the history bacteria ARB to convert the chemical energy stored in organic or inor. and development of MESs Borole et al 2011 Schr der 2011 2012 ganic substrates to electrical energy during their anaerobic respiration. Sleutels et al 2012 and the substrates materials and microbial com Logan 2009 Lovley 2006 Park et al 2001 Torres et al 2009 Such. munities in different systems Hamelers et al 2010 Logan 2009 microorganisms are able to transfer electrons out of cell membranes. Lovley 2006 Pant et al 2010 Wei et al 2011 but there has been to the electrode either directly through membrane bound protein. no comprehensive or quantitative review that directly addresses one structures such as pili c type cytochrome and laments or using mo. fundamental factor where all the known functions were originated bile electron shuttles such as mediators for indirect electron transfer. from and all future functions will be based upon As shown in Table 1 For example recent studies showed that Geobacter sulfurreducens re. this article aims to provide the rst complete review with the goal to quires conductive pili as nanowires for cell to cell electron conduction. summarize all the functions with different acronyms that have been de and c type cytochrome OmcZ to promote electron transfer onto the elec. veloped using this platform to date and shed light on future system de trode Lovley 2011 Summers et al 2010 In contrast Shewanella spe. velopment for energy and environmental science and engineering cies were reported to make both direct electrode contact through. Different groups have also used bioelectrochemical systems BESs or conductive laments and indirect electron transfer via mediators such. MXCs for this technology platform but because BESs were also used in as ribo avin or avin adenine mononucleotide FMN Canstein et al. other studies to represent cell free enzyme based systems while system 2008 Gorby et al 2006 Marsili et al 2008 Many other bacteria can. acronyms have far beyond the X of MXCs this review uses MESs to rep produce and use soluble redox mediators or electron shuttles which. resent the overall technology platform Harnisch and Schr der 2010 transport the electrons from the cell to the electrode For example. Logan and Rabaey 2012 Rozendal et al 2008 Torres et al 2010 Pseudomonas species can produce phenazines as extracellular electron. shuttles and other bacteria can use externally provided mediators. 2 The shared principle in the anode chamber such as neutral red anthraquinone 2 6 disulfonate AQDS thionine. methyl viologen methyl blue and some humics Aulenta et al 2008. Compared to traditional chemical fuel cells the MES platform uses Milliken and May 2007 Park and Zeikus 2000 Rabaey et al 2005a. low cost and self sustaining microorganisms to oxidize organic and Scott and Murano 2007 Thurston et al 1985. Fig 1 Number of published journal articles on MESs containing the phrases microbial fuel cell microbial electrolysis cell microbial electrosynthesis or microbial desalination cell. Source Scopus on 7 1 2013 document type Journal Language English duplicates were removed from searching results. Summary of all types of MESs with different acronyms. Types of MESs Electron donor for anode oxidization Electron acceptor for cathode Main products Ref. MFC based systems for electricity generation, Microbial fuel cells MFCs in general Any biodegradable material Oxygen potassium ferricyanide Electricity Kim et al 1999 Tanaka et al 1983. or other oxidants, 1 Tubular microbial fuel cell tubular MFC Acetate glucose domestic wastewater hospital Potassium ferricyanide Electricity Rabaey et al 2005b. wastewater digester ef uent from a potato,processing plant. H Wang Z J Ren Biotechnology Advances 31 2013 1796 1807. 2 Up ow microbial fuel cell UMFC Sucrose Potassium ferricyanide oxygen Electricity He et al 2005 He et al 2006. 3 Baf ed air cathode microbial fuel Glucose liquid from corn stover steam explosion Oxygen Electricity Feng et al 2010. cell BAFMFC process, 4 Up ow anaerobic sludge blanket Glucose sul de Oxygen sulfer Electricity Zhang et al 2012. reactor microbial fuel cell UASB MFC, 5 Slalom ow cassette electrode microbial Starch yeast extract peptone plant oil detergent Oxygen Electricity Miyahara et al 2013.
fuel cell sCE MFC, 6 Plug ow microbial fuel cell PF MFC Wastewater sodium acetate Oxygen Electricity Karra et al 2013. 7 Complete mixing microbial fuel cell Wastewater sodium acetate Oxygen Electricity Karra et al 2013. 8 Stacked microbial fuel cell stacked MFC Sodium acetate Potassium ferricyanide Electricity Aelterman et al 2006. 9 Submersible microbial fuel cell SBMFC Domestic wastewater Oxygen Electricity Zhang and Angelidaki 2012c. 10 Benthic microbial fuel cell BMFC Sediment Oxygen Electricity Gong et al 2011 Nielsen et al 2007. Tender et al 2008, 11 Sediment microbial fuel cell AKA benthic Acetate and other fermentation products in the Oxygen Electricity Lovley 2006. unattended generator or BUG sediment, 12 Self stacked submersible microbial fuel Sediment acetate Oxygen Electricity Zhang and Angelidaki 2012b. cell SSMFC, 13 Microbial remediation cell MRC Diesel ethanol 1 2 dichloroethane pyridine Chlorinated solvents Reduced non toxic chemicals Aulenta et al 2008 Butler et al 2010. phenol perchlorate chromium Gregory and Lovley 2009 Kim et al. and uranium 2007,Luo et al 2009 Morris et al 2009,Pham et al 2009 Zhang et al 2009.
T Zhang et al 2010, 14 Photo microbial fuel cell p MFC Water Potassium ferricyanide Electricity Thorne et al 2011. 15 Microbial photoelectrochemical solar cell Marine sediment Oxygen Electricity glucose oxygen Malik et al 2009. 16 Solar powered microbial fuel cell Succinate propionate Oxygen Electricity hydrogen Cho et al 2008 Strik et al 2010. 17 Photobioelectrochemical fuel cell Organic acids alcohols Potassium ferricyanide Electricity hydrogen Rosenbaum et al 2005. 18 Photosynthetic microbial fuel cells PMFCs Water Oxygen Electricity Zou et al 2009. 19 Photosynthetic electrochemical cell Water glucose Potassium ferricyanide Electricity Yagishita et al 1997. 20 Solar driven microbial Trypticase soy broth TSB Proton Electricity Qian et al 2010. photoelectrochemical cell solar MPC, 21 Plant microbial fuel cell PMFC Plant derived organics root exudates Oxygen potassium ferricyanide Electricity Deng et al 2012. 22 Phototrophic microbial fuel cells Sediment Oxygen Electricity He et al 2009. phototrophic MFCs, 23 Photosynthetic algal microbial fuel cell Algae Potassium ferricyanide Electricity Strik et al 2008b. 24 Microbial electrochemical snorkel MES Wastewater Oxygen Treated wastewater no Erable et al 2011. AKA short circuited microbial fuel cell electricity. 25 Acid mine drainage fuel cell AMD FC Ferrous ion Oxygen Electricity removing iron Cheng et al 2007. Types of MESs Electron donor for anode oxidization Electron acceptor for cathode Main products Ref. 26 Integrated photobioelectrochemical system Wastewater Oxygen Electricity algal biomass Xiao et al 2012. 27 Osmotic microbial fuel cell OsMFC Sodium acetate Oxygen Diluted draw solution Zhang et al 2011. electricity, 28 Microbial reverse electrodialysis cell MRC Sodium acetate Oxygen Electricity Cusick et al 2012 Kim and Logan 2011b. 29 Microbial reverse electrodialysis Sodium acetate Oxygen Electricity acid alkali Zhu et al 2013. chemical production cell MRCC,MEC based systems for chemical production.
Microbial electrolysis cells MECs in general Any biodegradable material Proton Hydrogen hydrogen peroxide Cheng et al 2009 Liu et al 2005b. methane sodium hydroxide Rabaey et al 2010 Rozendal et al 2009. 30 Bioelectro chemically assisted microbial Wastewater Proton Hydrogen Ditzig et al 2007. reactor BEAMR, 31 Solar powered microbial electrolysis fuel Acetate Proton Hydrogen Chae et al 2009. 32 Microbial reverse electrodialysis Acetate Proton Hydrogen Kim and Logan 2011a. electrolysis cell MREC, 33 Microbial electrolysis struvite precipitation Sodium acetate Proton Hydrogen struvite Cusick and Logan 2012. 34 Submersible microbial electrolysis cell SMEC Acetate Proton Hydrogen Zhang and Angelidaki 2012a. H Wang Z J Ren Biotechnology Advances 31 2013 1796 1807. MES based systems for chemical production, Microbial electrosynthesis MES in general Organic hydrogen sul de water Acetic acid or other organics Ethanol acetate 2 oxobutyrate Gong et al 2013 Nevin et al 2010. carbon dioxide formate Nevin et al 2011 Rabaey and. Rozendal 2010 Rabaey et al 2011,Steinbusch et al 2010. 35 Microbial carbon capture cell MCC Glucose Carbon dioxide Algal biomass electricity Wang et al 2010. MDC based systems for water desalination and bene cial reuse. Microbial desalination cells MDCs in general Any biodegradable material Oxygen potassium ferricyanide Desalinated water Cao et al 2009. organics or other oxidants, 36 Microbial saline wastewater electrolysis cell MSC Sodium acetate Hydrogen Treated saline wastewater Kim and Logan 2013b.
electricity, 37 Osmotic MDC OsMDC MODC Sodium acetate xylose wastewater Oxygen potassium ferricyanide Desalinated water electricity Kim and Logan 2013a Zhang and He. proton 2012, 38 Microbial desalination cell with capacitive adsorption Sodium acetate Potassium ferricyanide Desalinated water Forrestal et al 2012a. capability cMDC, 39 Microbial desalination cell packed with ion exchange Sodium acetate Oxygen Desalinated water electricity Morel et al 2012. resin R MDC, 40 Microbial electrolysis desalination cell MEDC Sodium acetate Proton Hydrogen desalinated water Luo et al 2011. 41 Microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical Sodium acetate Oxygen Desalinated water sodium Chen et al 2012. production hydroxide,cell MEDCC hydrochloric acid, 42 Microbial capacitive desalination cell MCDC Sodium acetate Oxygen Desalinated water Forrestal et al 2012b.
43 Capacitive deionization coupled with microbial fuel Sodium acetate Potassium ferricyanide Desalinated water Yuan et al 2012. cell CDI MFC, 44 Up ow microbial desalination cell UMDC Sodium acetate Oxygen Desalinated water electricity Jacobson et al 2011. 45 Stacked microbial desalination cell SMDC Sodium acetate Oxygen Desalinated water electricity Chen et al 2011. 46 Recirculation microbial desalination cell rMDC Xylose Oxygen Desalinated water electricity Qu et al 2012. 47 Submerged microbial desalination denitri cation Sodium acetate Nitrate Electricity nitrogen Zhang and Angelidaki 2013. cell SMDDC, 1800 H Wang Z J Ren Biotechnology Advances 31 2013 1796 1807. Using microorganisms as biocatalysts MESs can theoretically con combination of multiple functions in one system and they are generally. vert any biodegradable substrate into energy and chemicals Besides straightforward such as microbial electrolysis desalination cell MEDC. simple sugars and derivatives used in most lab scale studies many com Luo et al 2011 microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical. plex waste materials have also been utilized such as different wastewa production cell MEDCC Chen et al 2012 osmotic microbial fuel. ters from municipal and industrial sources biomass wastes and cell OsMFC Zhang et al 2011 and microbial electrolysis struvite. inorganic substrates such as ammonia sul de and acid mine drainage precipitation cell MESC Cusick and Logan 2012 etc. Cheng et al 2007 Kuntke et al 2012 Pant et al 2010 Rabaey et al. 2006 Velasquez Orta et al 2009 The utilization of complex waste ma 4 MFC based systems for electricity generation. terials generally requires the cooperation of polymer degrading bacte. ria and electrochemically active bacteria with the rst group breaking 4 1 Wastewater microbial fuel cells wastewater MFCs. down the complex polymers such as cellulose or protein into simple. organic matter such as volatile fatty acids alcohol or amino acids and MFCs refer to the reactor systems that focus on electricity production. then the second group oxidizes these simple organic products with from biodegradable materials Table 1 provides a complete list of differ. the anode serving as the electron acceptor Freguia et al 2008 ent MFCs to date by our best count Early lab scale MFC studies mostly. Parameswaran et al 2009 Ren et al 2007 2008 In terms of waste used acetate glucose or other simple substrates to characterize the per. treatment in the anode chamber MESs represent a new generation of formance of materials reactor con gurations or microbial activities. technology because they carry the potential to transform traditional Liu et al 2005a Rabaey et al 2003 The rst MFC study that used. energy intensive treatment focused processes into integrated systems real wastewater as the substrate was reported in 2004 Liu et al. that recover energy nutrient water and other value added products 2004 and since then hundreds of studies have been published to report. power production from different substrates including both organic and. 3 The diverse application possibilities in the cathode chamber inorganic waste streams using various electrode or separator materials. and reactor con gurations Several review articles have provided com. As shown in Table 1 there have been 47 systems presented so far prehensive information on the substrates Pant et al 2010 electrode. with different functions or system constructions that were developed materials Wei et al 2011 separator materials X Zhang et al. using the MES platform and people used different acronyms to 2010 and reactor con gurations Logan et al 2006 used in different. represent the various functions and systems Though no speci c rules MFC studies. have been established to name the different reactors this article at Classic MFC designs include the single chamber air cathode MFCs. tempts for the rst time to summarize and categorize all the systems SCMFCs developed by Liu and Logan which for the rst time eliminat. that have been reported so far and provides some insights on future ed the membrane and therefore signi cantly reduced system internal. technology development resistance and cost Fig 3A Liu and Logan 2004 Liu et al 2005a Tu. In many cases the different MESs can be summarized as MXCs in bular designs Tubular MFCs with different ow patterns simpli ed. which the X simply presents the main function and bene t of a speci c construction processes and optimized systems with increased electrode. cell For example a microbial fuel cell MFC is the very original type of surface area and reduced system resistance He et al 2005 Rabaey. MES whose main function is direct electricity generation Fig 2A et al 2005b A baf ed air cathode microbial fuel cell BAFMFC was. Logan et al 2006 When an external power source is added in an designed to increase organic loading rate Feng et al 2010 and stacked. MFC reactor to reduce cathode potential the system becomes a micro MFCs were able to increase direct voltage or current output while also. bial electrolysis cell MEC where hydrogen gas and other products enhance substrate oxidation Aelterman et al 2006 Other MFC sys. can be generated Fig 2B Cheng et al 2009 Ditzig et al 2007 tems used in wastewater applications include submersible MFCs. Logan et al 2008 Rabaey et al 2010 Rozendal et al 2009 If the SBMFCs Zhang and Angelidaki 2012c which may convert the infor. main function of the system is to use the cathode to reduce oxidized mation of substrate concentration toxicity or dissolved oxygen concen. contaminants such as uranium perchlorate or chlorinated solvents tration into electronic signals as MFC sensors. the cell can be named a microbial remediation cell MRC Aulenta The main advantages of using MFCs in wastewater treatment come. et al 2008 Butler et al 2010 Gregory and Lovley 2009 and if the from the savings of aeration energy and sludge disposal Oh et al. main goal of the system is to synthesize value added chemicals through 2010 Ren 2013 Xiao et al 2012 For traditional activated sludge sys. microbially catalyzed cathodic reductions the system can be named mi tems aeration can amount to 45 75 of plant energy costs so the con. crobial electrosynthesis MES which can be a little confusing with the version of aeration tank to MFC units is very bene cial because it not. general microbial electrochemical system acronym Fig 2C Lovley only eliminates aeration energy consumption studies also showed. and Nevin 2011 Rabaey and Rozendal 2010 Another system called that the MFC can produce 10 20 more energy that can be used for. a microbial desalination cell MDC Fig 2D Cao et al 2009 Kim other processes Huggins et al 2013 Pant et al 2010 The reported. and Logan 2011a includes additional chambers between the anode maximum power density from lab scale air cathode MFCs has reached. and cathode and uses the internal potential to drive water desalination 2 87 kW m3 making it promising for commercialization development. There are also many different sub systems within each main catego Fan et al 2012 even though the system scale up remains a major. ry Take MFCs as an example based on different substrates used in MFC challenge Another main bene t of MFC systems is the low biomass pro. reactors there are wastewater MFCs sediment or benthic MFCs etc Liu duction The MFC is a bio lm based system and the cell yield of electro. et al 2004 Reimers et al 2001 By utilizing different photosynthetic chemically active bacteria 0 07 0 16 gVSS gCOD is much less than the. organisms for solar energy capturing people have developed plant activated sludge 0 35 0 45 gVSS gCOD so it can reduce sludge pro. MFCs phototrophic MFCs and algae MFCs Deng et al 2012 He duction by 50 70 Fan et al 2012 Huggins et al which in turn. et al 2009 Strik et al 2011 By integrating other technologies with may reduce 20 30 of the plant operation cost Other bene ts may in. the MES platform new systems with superior performance can be de clude nutrient removal and the production of value added products. veloped For instance by incorporating reverse electrodialysis RED such as caustic solutions for disinfection or H2 and biogas for energy. with an MEC the microbial reverse electrodialysis electrolysis cell which will be discussed more extensively in the following sections. MREC can produce H2 without any external power supply Kim and. Logan 2011a By integrating capacitive deionization CDI with an 4 2 Benthic microbial fuel cells benthic MFCs. MDC the microbial capacitive desalination cell MCDC could improve. desalination ef ciency by 7 25 times compared to traditional CDI pro Benthic MFCs BMFCs also known as sediment MFCs SMFCs are. cesses Forrestal et al 2012b Other names may come from the systems that utilize the naturally occurring potential difference. H Wang Z J Ren Biotechnology Advances 31 2013 1796 1807 1801. between the anoxic sediment and oxic seawater to produce electricity a maximum power density of 294 mW m2 Zhang and Angelidaki. Lovley 2006 Microorganisms oxidize the substrates in the sediment 2012b. and transfer electrons to the anode either embedded in or rested on. top of the sediment and then the electrons are transferred to the 4 3 Microbial remediation cells MRCs. cathode suspended in the overlying seawater where dissolved oxygen. is reduced to water Fig 3B Donovan et al 2011 The abundant avail Another emerging application of the MES platform is using the. ability of substrates in the sediment makes BMFC a very promising electrodes to serve as inexhaustible electron acceptors anode or do. power source for autonomous marine sensors and underwater vehicles nors cathode for underground contaminant remediation Huang. because they provide consistent and maintenance free power supply et al 2011 Morris and Jin 2008 Yuan et al 2010 Like sediment. for a long period of time without using batteries This is a huge advan MFCs MRCs used in groundwater or soil remediation can be a single. tage compared to batteries because batteries are limited in service life or an array of electrodes without using enclosed containers Such. for about 2 4 years and the replacement can be very expensive espe bioelectrochemically enhanced approach can stimulate microbes to. cially in deep water It was estimated that the initial organic matter in concurrently degrade underground pollutants and produce additional. 1L marine sediment could generate an average current of 0 3mA contin electricity Such process is considered sustainable because it eliminates. uously for 22 years Malik et al 2009 While the concept of BMFC was the injection of expensive chemicals and reduces operational energy. only introduced in 2001 by Reimers et al 2001 it is a type of MES de cost as compared to other technologies. vice that is closest toward commercialization The rst demonstration of Microbial electrochemical remediation of petroleum contaminants. BMFC as a viable power source was reported by Tender et al in 2008 was demonstrated by using electrode as a channel linking underground. where an 18mW meteorological buoy was powered for nearly 7months hydrocarbon oxidation and upground O2 reduction One study showed. Tender et al 2008 Another study showed a chambered BMFC was that the active MRC increased the degradation of diesel range organics. used to power an acoustic modem interfaced with an oceanographic DRO by 164 as compared to open circuit potential Morris et al. sensor for over 50 days with an average power density of 44 mW m2 2009 and another study using a U tube MFC showed crude oil degrada. Gong et al 2011 So far the longest eld demonstration of BMFCs tion can be increased by 120 at the location near the electrode X Wang. has been reported continually operated for at least 2 years without de et al 2012 The dramatic increase in contaminant oxidation rate is. pletion in power Tender et al 2008 Different con gurations of hypothesized due to the faster electron transfer by more conductive elec. BMFCs have been developed and deployed Initial designs include sim trode as compared with electron shuttles It is also possible that the. ple graphite plates buried in the sediment with suspended cathode in competition between microbes to access and deliver electrons to the. water but such designs are fragile and the power output is very low electrodes triggered higher metabolic activities and the immediate re. Tender et al 2002 Nielsen et al developed a chamber based BMFC moval of electrons via the electrode eliminated the potential feedback in. that incorporates a suspended and semi enclosed anode which reduced habitation Similar remediation studies on other reduced pollutants. system footprint and increased power output to a range of 380 mW m2 including diesel ethanol 1 2 dichloroethane pyridine and other con. 3 8 W m3 Nielsen et al 2007 A self stacked submersible microbial taminants were also reported Luo et al 2009 Pham et al 2009. fuel cell SSMFC showed an open circuit voltage OCV of 1 12 V and Zhang et al 2009 Conversely oxidized contaminants such as. Organic H2O Organic H2,CO2 O2 CO2 H,Membrane Membrane. optional optional,H2O Organics Organic H2O,O2 CO2 CO2 O2. Membrane AEM CEM, Anode Bacteria Cathode Bacteria H2 O2 CO2 Organics.
Fig 2 Basic principles in four typical MESs left chamber anode right chamber cathode A Electricity generation in air cathode microbial fuel cells MFCs B hydrogen generation. with external power supply in microbial electrolysis cells MECs C chemical production by microbial electrosynthesis MES D middle chamber desalination in microbial desalina. tion cells MDCs, 1802 H Wang Z J Ren Biotechnology Advances 31 2013 1796 1807. chlorinated solvents perchlorate chromium and uranium can be re 4 4 Microbial solar cells MSCs. duced using the electrode as the electron donor Aulenta et al 2008. Butler et al 2010 Gregory and Lovley 2009 Wang et al 2008 For in Microbial solar cells are collective names for different MESs that. stance studies showed that a negatively polarized electrode could act as integrate the photosynthetic reaction with microbial electricity or. an electron donor for the dechlorination of trichloroethene TCE to eth chemical production using synergistic relationships between photosyn. ene by a mixed culture of microorganisms Aulenta et al 2008 The thetic organisms and EAB Strik et al 2011 While EAB are generally the. similar approach was also used in both lab and eld tests for U VI reduc same bacterial groups in other MESs the organisms that are responsible. tion where the horizontally distributed anodes and cathodes enabled di for converting solar energy to organic matter may include higher plants. rect correlation between acetate injection and uranium reduction and photoautotrophic bacteria and algae A very wide variety of names. current production may be an effective proxy for monitoring in situ mi and systems related to MSCs have appeared in literature such as. crobial activity and remediation performance Fig 3C Williams et al photo microbial fuel cell p MFC Thorne et al 2011 microbial. 2010 photoelectrochemical solar cell Malik et al 2009 solar powered. Fig 3 MFC based systems for electricity generation A wastewater microbial fuel cells B benthic microbial fuel cells C microbial remediation cells and D microbial solar cells. Reproduced with permission from refs Donovan et al 2011 Liu and Logan 2004 Strik et al 2011 Williams et al 2010. H Wang Z J Ren Biotechnology Advances 31 2013 1796 1807 1803. microbial fuel cell Strik et al 2010 photobioelectrochemical fuel cell evolution which was much lower than the 1 8 2 0 V used in traditional. Rosenbaum et al 2005 photosynthetic microbial fuel cells PMFCs water electrolysis Liu et al 2005b Logan et al 2008 Another advan. Zou et al 2009 photosynthetic electrochemical cell Yagishita et al tage was that the substrates can be from renewable and waste materials. 1997 and solar driven microbial photoelectrochemical cell solar rather than fossil fuels and the H2 production rate can be more than. MPC Qian et al 2010 Despite the variations in system designs the 1 m3 day m3 reactor with a yield up to 11 mol H2 mol glucose which. basic principle of MSCs usually include 4 steps as described by Strik is more than 3 times higher than dark fermentation Liu et al 2010. et al 2011 and illustrated in Fig 3D i photosynthesis of organic mat Logan et al 2008 Several excellent reviews summarized the material. ter ii transport of organic matter to the anode compartment iii an and system development of the MECs for H2 production Lee et al. odic oxidation of organic matter by EAB and iv cathodic reduction of 2010 Liu et al 2010 Logan et al 2008. oxygen or other electron acceptors Here we categorize the MSCs into 3 The elimination of membranes or separators converted dual cham. groups based on the organisms responsible for photosynthesis plant ber MECs to single chamber reactors and signi cantly increased H2 gen. MSCs phototrophic MSCs and algae MSCs More detailed information eration rate but the produced H2 was more likely consumed by. can be found in other reviews Deng et al 2012 He et al 2009 Strik methanogenesis to generate CH4 Liu et al 2010 Logan et al 2008. et al 2011 Researchers have tried different inhibition approaches such as adding. The most popular MSCs are plant MSCs which use the organic expensive methanogen inhibitors periodically expose solution in aero. rhizodeposits excreted from living higher plants to feed EAB for electric bic environment and control the pH and redox potentials but the CH4. ity production Reed mannagrass and rice plants were used rst to dem contamination of H2 in single chamber MECs still remains a major ob. onstrate the syntrophic relations with maximal power outputs of stacle Hu et al 2008 Liu et al 2010 Logan et al 2008 The small ex. 67 mW m2 and 26 mW m2 respectively Schamphelaire et al 2008 ternal voltage can be supplied by MFC stacks or other renewable power. Strik et al 2008a Other plants such as Spartina anglica Arundinella sources such as solar and wind Chae et al 2009 Sun et al 2008 Re. anomala and Arundo donax were also investigated for concurrent elec cently reverse electrodialysis RED was added into MECs generating a. tricity and biomass production A donax failed Helder et al 2010 but new system called microbial reverse electrodialysis electrolysis cells. S anglica was able to generate current for up to 119 days Timmers MRECs with spontaneous H2 production by combining together the. et al 2010 Despite the low power output at the current stage a driving forces from anode organic oxidation and salinity gradient ener. European research consortium estimated that the power production gy Fig 4A and salt solutions could be continuously regenerated with. from plant MSCs could reach 1000 GJ ha year 3 2 W m2 Strik et al waste heat 40 C Cusick et al 2012 Kim and Logan 2011a. 2011 Unlike plant MSCs the phototrophic MSCs do not require the co By using similar strategies in MECs other inorganic chemicals have. operation between the two groups of microbes because studies showed been produced in the cathode chamber Cusick and Logan discovered. that strains of photosynthetic bacteria such as Rhodobacter sphaeroides that phosphate can be recovered as struvite MgNH4PO4 6H2O in a. can generate electricity through the metabolic activity of in situ oxidation modi ed microbial electrolysis struvite precipitation cell MESC. of photobiological hydrogen Rosenbaum et al 2005 and the power Cusick and Logan 2012 Rozendal et al reported that hydrogen perox. density can be comparable with nonphotosynthetic MFCs Cao et al ide can be produced by reducing oxygen through the two electron reduc. 2008 A self assembling self repairing marine sediment system with tion and the proof of concept study showed that at an applied voltage of. photosynthetic microbes was reported to generate electricity from sun 0 5 V H2O2 can be generated at a rate of 1 9 0 2 kg H2O2 m3 day with a. light without the need of providing constant ux of glucose and oxygen concentration of 0 13 0 01 wt and an overall ef ciency of 83 1 4 8. Malik et al 2009 The algae MSC is an emerging system because the Rozendal et al 2009 The same group later used a similar approach to. functions of algae and EAB are complementary The consortium not produce alkaline solutions as they found that by using acetate as the. only can convert solar energy to electric energy it can also remove nutri electron donor in the anode the MEC generated up to 1 05A in current. ents and produce value added chemicals such as protein and biodiesel at an applied voltage of 1 77 V which allowed for the production of. Both microalgae e g Chlorella vulgaris and macroalgae e g Ulva caustic to 3 4 wt Rabaey et al 2010 Such chemicals can be produced. lactuca have been used in algae MSCs to provide substrates for EAB during wastewater treatment process and then used as low cost disin. Velasquez Orta et al 2009 In addition to traditional batch reactors fectants for many industries. Strik et al developed a ow through photosynthetic algal microbial. fuel cell PAMFC to automatically feed algae to MFCs Strik et al 6 MES based systems for chemical production. 2008b Another study integrated photobioreactor anaerobic digester. and MFC reactors together to recover both biogas and electricity Microbial electrosynthesis also shortened as MES in literature is an. Schamphelaire and Verstraete 2009 Other systems include recycling emerging area in microbial electrochemical research and development. anode off gas CO2 into an algae grown cathode for additional carbon and it uses the electrons derived from the cathode to reduce carbon di. capture Wang et al 2010 and an integrated photobioelectrochemical oxide and other chemicals into a variety of organic compounds espe. system with an MFC enclosed inside an algal bioreactor Xiao et al cially those with multiple carbons that are precursors for desirable. 2012 Utilizing the algae cyanobacteria and protozoa Strik et al report value added chemicals or liquid transportation fuels Lovley and. ed an MSC with a reversible bioelectrode which can function as a Nevin 2011 Rabaey and Rozendal 2010 Rabaey et al 2011 The po. biocathode during illumination for photosynthesis reaction and can tential of MES not only comes from the double bene ts of carbon se. then switch to the anode in the dark for organic degradation Strik questration and organic production but may also address the. et al 2010 MSCs are the only MESs that do not rely on external electron harvesting storage and distribution problems associated with energy. donors but convert inexhaustible solar energy into electrical energy and crops solar and wind farms and natural gas exploration because the. chemicals so they carry great potential if current challenges such as low electrons can be from any renewable source and microbes may harvest. power output are addressed solar energy in a 100 fold higher ef ciency than biomass based chemi. cal production Lovley and Nevin 2011, 5 MEC based systems for chemical production The concept of microbial electrosynthesis was only introduced in. 2009 2010 with the initial ndings associated with methane generation. The concept of microbial electrolysis cell was originated in 2005 from a reactor with an abiotic anode and a biocathode acclimated with. with the key feature of using an external voltage on top of the MFC po Methanobacterium palustre Cheng et al 2009 Another early study dem. tential to enable hydrogen gas evolution at the cathode through the re onstrated that bio lms of Sporomusa ovata could use the electrons sup. duction of protons Liu et al 2005b Rozendal et al 2006 Early studies plied by the cathode to reduce carbon dioxide into acetate and small. used external power supplies ranged from 0 6 to 1 0 V to catalyze H2 amounts of 2 oxobutyrate Electrons appearing in these products. 1804 H Wang Z J Ren Biotechnology Advances 31 2013 1796 1807. Fig 4 Some advanced MESs A a microbial reverse electrodialysis electrolysis cell MREC B a microbial electrosynthesis MES and C a microbial capacitive desalination cell. Reproduced with permission from refs Forrestal et al 2012b Kim and Logan 2011a Nevin et al 2010. accounted for over 85 of the electrons consumed Fig 4B Nevin et al top technology paper by Environmental Science Technology Cao. 2010 In general acetogenic bacteria use hydrogen as the electron donor et al 2009 The basic principle of MDC is to utilize the electric potential. for carbon dioxide reduction but it was found that many acetogenic bac generated across the anode and cathode to drive desalination in situ. teria such as Clostridium ljungdahlii Clostridium aceticum Sporomusa Compare to other MESs MDCs have a third chamber for desalination. sphaeroides and Moorella thermoacetica were all able to consume electri by inserting an anion exchange membrane AEM and a cation ex. cal current and produce organic acids Nevin et al 2011 Studies also change membrane CEM in between the anode and cathode chambers. showed that ethanol can be produced by reducing acetate at the cathode When bacteria in the anode chamber oxidize biodegradable substrates. but some processes required addition of mediators such as methyl and produce current and protons the anions e g Cl in the middle. viologen MV Steinbusch et al 2010 The mixed culture originated chamber migrate to the anode and the cations e g Na are drawn to. from brewery wastewater was reported to generate methane acetate the cathode for charge balance thus the middle chamber solution is de. and hydrogen gas from a biocathode poised at 590 mV vs SHE with salinated Cao et al 2009 Luo et al 2012c Recently other approaches. CO2 as the only carbon source Marshall et al 2012 and research on ge were developed to achieve desalination as well For example by. netically modi ed microorganisms may signi cantly facilitate electron switching the CEM to the anode side and AEM to the cathode side a mi. uptake and organic synthesis As discussed in several conceptual review crobial saline wastewater electrolysis cell MSC desalinates anolyte. articles the microbial electrosynthesis carries great potential but there and catholyte by driving salts into the middle chamber Kim and. are also many technological and economic challenges to be solved before Logan 2013b Osmotic microbial fuel cells OsMFCs or osmotic. it can be implemented in large scale Lovley and Nevin 2011 Rabaey and MDCs OsMDCs MODCs use a forward osmosis membrane to replace. Rozendal 2010 Rabaey et al 2011 the AEM and withdraw pure water from wastewater to the draw solu. tion and then water can be recovered during draw solution regenera. 7 MDC based systems for water desalination and bene cial reuse tion Kim and Logan 2013a Zhang et al 2011 A capacitive. microbial desalination cell cMDC incorporates capacitive deionization. Water desalination using the MDC process was rst introduced in into an MDC to improve desalination ef ciency Forrestal et al 2012a. 2009 by Cao et al and the proof of concept study was selected as the 2012b Yuan et al 2012 In addition to desalination acid HCl and. H Wang Z J Ren Biotechnology Advances 31 2013 1796 1807 1805. base NaOH solutions can be produced if a bipolar membrane is placed Ren 2012 H Wang et al 2012 Multiple reviews have summarized. into the MDC next to the anode chamber creating a four chamber sys the progresses of MFC system development and provided insights in. tem called a microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical further directions Logan 2010 Lovley 2011 Rozendal et al 2008. production cell MEDCC Chen et al 2012 Wei et al 2011. The MDC can be used as either a stand alone for simultaneous Compared to electricity generation in MFCs chemical production. organic and salt removal with energy production or a pretreatment for and desalination from MESs have been considered technically and eco. conventional desalination processes such as reverse osmosis RO to re nomically more feasible due to the higher price of chemicals and rela. duce the salt concentration in feed solution and minimize energy con tively simple collection process But such processes are relatively new. sumption and membrane fouling Compared with current technologies and mainly in lab scale and there have been few reports in scale ups. that use 6 68 kWh to desalinate 1 m3 of seawater MDC studies showed Cusick et al 2011 Logan 2010 Among the many different functions. that 180 231 more energy can be recovered as H2 than the reactor en developed using this MES platform technology as discussed across. ergy input when desalinating 5 20 g L NaCl solutions Luo et al 2011 this article it is not clear where the MES can contribute the most to. Mehanna et al 2010 and it was estimated that an MDC may produce the current environmental infrastructure and chemical industries. up to 58 of the electrical energy required by downstream RO systems There have been very limited evaluations of different systems regarding. Jacobson et al 2011 Higher desalination ef ciency and current output to their life cycles in terms of function selections or comparisons with. can be achieved through membrane stacks Chen et al 2011 Kim and established technologies which they may complement Foley et al. Logan 2011c and electrolyte recirculation was shown effective in stabi 2010 Pant et al 2011 It has been assumed that the most environmen. lizing electrolyte pH Luo et al 2012a Qu et al 2012 Traditional MDC tal bene ts from MESs come from the displacement of fossil fuel depen. designs accomplish desalination by transporting ions from the middle dent resources i e grid electricity or chemical manufacture through. chamber to the anode and cathode chambers which increases the con co product production i e electricity chemicals from renewable. ductivity of the anolyte and catholyte This change has been shown ben sources but the energy and environmental footprints of different sys. e cial to electricity generation due to improved mass transfer but the tems have to be clearly quanti ed before implementing large scale ap. increased salinity may also affect ef uent water quality and prevent plications In addition fundamental understandings on the unique. subsequent bene cial use of treated wastewater Luo et al 2012c electron transfer mechanisms between bacterial cells and electrodes. One solution for complete salt removal from all the liquids may involve as well as among different microbial species are crucial for further. the physical and electrical adsorption of ions onto high surface area system development Such characterizations should be performed on. membrane electrode assemblies such as microbial capacitive desalina both pure cultures at different growth stages as well as microbial. tion cells MCDCs which showed up to 25 times of increase in salt re consortiums that are present in the environment Overall despite the. moval and complete salt recovery Fig 4C Forrestal et al 2012b remaining challenges if MES keeps its pace in research and develop. Similar as many membrane based technologies one challenge for ment it is reasonable to believe that in the near future this platform. MDCs may come from membrane fouling due to bio lm growth and technology will provide viable solutions to address many energy and. scaling due to the deposition of hardness causing cations but studies environmental problems. on understanding and addressing such problems are just getting started. and solutions remain to be found Luo et al 2012a 2012b. Acknowledgment, This work was supported by the US National Science Foundation. under Award CBET 1235848 and the Of ce of Naval Research under. In about one decade of research and development the functionality. Award N000141310901, of MESs has expanded dramatically and the performance has improved. exponentially However despite the many different functions discov. ered there are many remaining challenges before this technology can References. be implemented in larger scale Taking MFCs as an example the Aelterman P Rabaey K Pham HT Boon N Verstraete W Continuous electricity generation. power density has increased by orders of magnitude from less than at high voltages and currents using stacked microbial fuel cells Environ Sci Technol. 1 mW m3 to 2 87 kW m3 or 10 9 kA m3 Fan et al 2012 primarily 2006 40 3388 94. Aulenta F Canosa A Majone M Panero S Reale P Rossetti S Trichloroethene dechlorina. due to the advancements in reactor architecture material and. tion and H2 evolution are alternative biological pathways of electric charge utilization. operation which relieves the physical and chemical constraints of the by a dechlorinating culture in a bioelectrochemical system Environ Sci Technol. system The projected wastewater treatment capacity of MFCs can 2008 42 6185 90. reach 7 1 kg chemical oxygen demand COD m3 reactor volume day Borole AP Reguera G Ringeisen B Wang Z W Feng Y Kim BH Electroactive bio lms cur. rent status and future research needs Energy Environ Sci 2011 4 4813 34. which is even higher than conventional activated sludge systems Butler CS Clauwaert P Green SJ Verstraete W Nerenberg R Bioelectrochemical perchlo. 0 5 2 kg COD m3 reactor volume day Rozendal et al 2008 How rate reduction in a microbial fuel cell Environ Sci Technol 2010 44 4685 91. ever there are still many challenges that need to be addressed before Canstein Hv Ogawa J Shimizu S Lloyd JR Secretion of avins by shewanella species and. their role in extracellular electron transfer Appl Environ Microbiol 2008 74 615 23. the technology can be applied in commercial scale The replacement Cao X Huang X Boon N Liang P Fan M Electricity generation by an enriched. of expensive metal catalysts and membranes with cheaper alternatives phototrophic consortium in a microbial fuel cell Electrochem Commun 2008 10. has dramatically reduced the reactor costs but the overall cost of MESs 1392 5. Cao X Huang X Liang P Xiao K Zhou Y Zhang X et al A new method for water desali. is still considered expensive for wastewater treatment unless an esti nation using microbial desalination cells Environ Sci Technol 2009 43 7148 52. mated threshold of internal resistance b 40 m m2 in combination Chae K J Choi M J Kim K Y Ajayi FF Chang I S Kim IS A solar powered microbial elec. with a current density around 25 A m2 can be reached Sleutels et al trolysis cell with a platinum catalyst free cathode to produce hydrogen Environ Sci. Technol 2009 43 9525 30, 2012 Most studies are still limited in lab scale and several pilot scale Chen X Xia X Liang P Cao X Sun H Huang X Stacked microbial desalination cells to en.
plants with capacities between 20 and 1000 l have not yet shown stable hance water desalination ef ciency Environ Sci Technol 2011 45 2465 70. and high enough performance due to the problems of water leaking Chen S Liu G Zhang R Qin B Luo Y Development of the microbial electrolysis desalina. tion and chemical production cell for desalination as well as acid and alkali produc. low power output in uent uctuation and unfavorable products. tions Environ Sci Technol 2012 46 2467 72, Cusick et al 2011 Keller and Rabaey 2008 Logan 2010 To achieve Cheng S Dempsey BA Logan BE Electricity generation from synthetic acid mine drainage. practical implementation MESs will need to be scaled up to at least in AMD water using fuel cell technologies Environ Sci Technol 2007 41 8149 53. cubic meter scale the reactor con gurations have to be easily integrated Cheng S Xing D Call DF Logan BE Direct biological conversion of electrical current into. methane by electromethanogenesis Environ Sci Technol 2009 43 3953 8. with current infrastructure and effectively harvesting systems instead Cho YK Donohue TJ Tejedor I Anderson MA McMahon KD Noguera DR Development of. of resistors have to be developed to deliver usable power Park and a solar powered microbial fuel cell J Appl Microbiol 2008 104 640 50. 1806 H Wang Z J Ren Biotechnology Advances 31 2013 1796 1807. Cusick RD Logan BE Phosphate recovery as struvite within a single chamber microbial Kim Y Logan BE Simultaneous removal of organic matter and salt ions from saline waste. electrolysis cell Bioresour Technol 2012 107 110 5 water in bioelectrochemical systems Desalination 2013b 308 115 21. Cusick RD Bryan B Parker DS Merrill MD Mehanna M Kiely PD et al Performance of a Kim B H Kim H J Hyun M S Park D H Direct electrode reaction of Fe III reducing bac. pilot scale continuous ow microbial electrolysis cell fed winery wastewater Appl terium Shewanella putrefaciens J Microbiol Biotechnol 1999 9 127 31. Microbiol Biotechnol 2011 89 2053 63 Kim JR Jung SH Regan JM Logan BE Electricity generation and microbial community. Cusick RD Kim Y Logan BE Energy capture from thermolytic solutions in microbial analysis of alcohol powered microbial fuel cells Bioresour Technol 2007 98 2568 77. reverse electrodialysis cells Science 2012 335 1474 7 Kuntke P Smiech KM Bruning H Zeeman G Saakes M Sleutels THJA et al Ammonium. Deng H Chen Z Zhao F Energy from plants and microorganisms progress in plant recovery and energy production from urine by a microbial fuel cell Water Res. microbial fuel cells ChemSusChem 2012 5 1006 11 2012 46 2627 36. Ditzig J Liu H Logan BE Production of hydrogen from domestic wastewater using a Lee H S Vermaas WFJ Rittmann BE Biological hydrogen production prospects and chal. bioelectrochemically assisted microbial reactor BEAMR Int J Hydrogen Energy lenges Trends Biotechnol 2010 28 262 71. 2007 32 2296 304 Liu H Logan BE Electricity generation using an air cathode single chamber microbial fuel. Donovan C Dewan A Peng H Heo D Beyenal H Power management system for a 2 5 W re cell in the presence and absence of a proton exchange membrane Environ Sci. mote sensor powered by a sediment microbial fuel cell J Power Sources 2011 196 Technol 2004 38 4040 6. 1171 7 Liu H Ramnarayanan R Logan BE Production of electricity during wastewater treatment. Erable B Etcheverry L Bergel A From microbial fuel cell MFC to microbial electrochem using a single chamber microbial fuel cell Environ Sci Technol 2004 38 2281 5. ical snorkel MES maximizing chemical oxygen demand COD removal from Liu H Cheng S Logan BE Production of electricity from acetate or butyrate using a. wastewater Biofouling 2011 27 319 26 single chamber microbial fuel cell Environ Sci Technol 2005a 39 658 62. Fan Y Han S K Liu H Improved performance of CEA microbial fuel cells with increased Liu H Grot S Logan BE Electrochemically assisted microbial production of hydrogen from. reactor size Energy Environ Sci 2012 5 8273 80 acetate Environ Sci Technol 2005b 39 4317 20. Feng Y Lee H Wang X Liu Y He W Continuous electricity generation by a graphite gran Liu H Hu H Chignell J Fan Y Microbial electrolysis novel technology for hydrogen pro. ule baf ed air cathode microbial fuel cell Bioresour Technol 2010 101 632 8 duction from biomass Biofuels 2010 1 129 42. Foley JM Rozendal RA Hertle CK Lant PA Rabaey K Life cycle assessment of high rate Logan BE Exoelectrogenic bacteria that power microbial fuel cells Nat Rev Microbiol. anaerobic treatment microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells Environ 2009 7 375 81. Sci Technol 2010 44 3629 37 Logan BE Scaling up microbial fuel cells and other bioelectrochemical systems Appl. Fornero JJ Rosenbaum M Angenent LT Electric power generation from municipal food Microbiol Biotechnol 2010 85 1665 71. and animal wastewaters using microbial fuel cells Electroanalysis 2010 22 832 43 Logan BE Rabaey K Conversion of wastes into bioelectricity and chemicals by using mi. Forrestal C Xu P Jenkins PE Ren Z Microbial desalination cell with capacitive adsorption crobial electrochemical technologies Science 2012 337 686 90. for ion migration control Bioresour Technol 2012a 120 332 6 Logan BE Hamelers B Rozendal R Schr der U Keller J Freguia S et al Microbial fuel cells. Forrestal C Xu P Ren Z Sustainable desalination using a microbial capacitive desalination methodology and technology Environ Sci Technol 2006 40 5181 92. cell Energy Environ Sci 2012b 5 7161 7 Logan BE Call D Cheng S Hamelers HVM Sleutels THJA Jeremiasse AW et al Microbial. Freguia S Rabaey K Yuan Z Keller Jr Syntrophic processes drive the conversion of glucose electrolysis cells for high yield hydrogen gas production from organic matter Environ. in microbial fuel cell anodes Environ Sci Technol 2008 42 7937 43 Sci Technol 2008 42 8630 40. Gong Y Radachowsky SE Wolf M Nielsen ME Girguis PR Reimers CE Benthic microbial Lovley DR Bug juice harvesting electricity with microorganisms Nat Rev Microbiol. fuel cell as direct power source for an acoustic modem and seawater 2006 4 497 508. oxygen temperature sensor system Environ Sci Technol 2011 45 5047 53 Lovley DR Live wires direct extracellular electron exchange for bioenergy and the biore. Gong Y Ebrahim A Feist AM Embree M Zhang T Lovley D et al Sul de driven microbial mediation of energy related contamination Energy Environ Sci 2011 4 4896 906. electrosynthesis Environ Sci Technol 2013 47 568 73 Lovley DR Nevin KP A shift in the current new applications and concepts for. Gorby YA Yanina S McLean JS Rosso KM Moyles D Dohnalkova A et al Electrically con microbe electrode electron exchange Curr Opin Biotechnol 2011 22 441 8. ductive bacterial nanowires produced by Shewanella oneidensis strain MR 1 and Luo H Liu G Zhang R Jin S Phenol degradation in microbial fuel cells Chem Eng J. other microorganisms PNAS 2006 103 11358 63 2009 147 259 64. Gregory KB Lovley DR Remediation and recovery of uranium from contaminated subsur Luo H Jenkins PE Ren Z Concurrent desalination and hydrogen generation using micro. face environments with electrodes Environ Sci Technol 2009 39 8943 7 bial electrolysis and desalination cells Environ Sci Technol 2011 45 340 4. Hamelers HVM Heijne AT Sleutels THJA Jeremiasse AW Strik DPBTB Buisman CJN New Luo H Xu P Jenkins PE Ren Z Ionic composition and transport mechanisms in microbial. applications and performance of bioelectrochemical systems Appl Microbiol desalination cells J Membr Sci 2012a 409 410 16 23. Biotechnol 2010 85 1673 85 Luo H Xu P Ren Z Long term performance and characterization of microbial desalination. Harnisch F Schr der U From MFC to MXC chemical and biological cathodes and their po cells in treating domestic wastewater Bioresour Technol 2012b 120 187 93. tential for microbial bioelectrochemical systems Chem Soc Rev 2010 39 4433 48 Luo H Xu P Roane TM Jenkins PE Ren Z Microbial desalination cells for improved per. He Z Minteer SD Angenent LT Electricity generation from arti cial wastewater using an formance in wastewater treatment electricity production and desalination. up ow microbial fuel cell Environ Sci Technol 2005 39 5262 7 Bioresour Technol 2012c 105 60 6. He Z Wagner N Minteer SD Angenent LT An up ow microbial fuel cell with an interior Malik S Drott E Grisdela P Lee J Lee C Lowy DA et al A self assembling self repairing. cathode assessment of the internal resistance by impedance spectroscopy Environ microbial photoelectrochemical solar cell Energy Environ Sci 2009 2 292 8. Sci Technol 2006 40 5212 7 Marshall CW Ross DE Fichot EB Norman RS May HD Electrosynthesis of commodity. He Z Kan J Mansfeld F Angenent LT Nealson KH Self sustained phototrophic microbial chemicals by an autotrophic microbial community Appl Environ Microbiol. fuel cells based on the synergistic cooperation between photosynthetic microorgan 2012 78 8412 20. isms and heterotrophic bacteria Environ Sci Technol 2009 43 Marsili E Baron DB Shikhare ID Coursolle D Gralnick JA Bond DR Shewanella secretes. Helder M Strik DPBTB Hamelers HVM Kuhn AJ Blok C Buisman CJN Concurrent avins that mediate extracellular electron transfer PNAS 2008 105 3968 73. bio electricity and biomass production in three plant microbial fuel cells using Spartina Mehanna M Kiely PD Call DF Logan BE Microbial electrodialysis cell for simultaneous. anglica Arundinella anomala and Arundo donax Bioresour Technol 2010 101 3541 7 water desalination and hydrogen gas production Environ Sci Technol 2010 44. Hu H Fan Y Liu H Hydrogen production using single chamber membrane free microbial 9578 83. electrolysis cells Water Res 2008 42 4172 8 Milliken CE May HD Sustained generation of electricity by the spore forming. Huang D Zhou S Chen Q Zhao B Yuan Y Zhuang L Enhanced anaerobic degradation of Gram positive Desul tobacterium hafniense strain DCB2 Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. organic pollutants in a soil microbial fuel cell Chem Eng J 2011 172 647 53 2007 73 1180 9. Huggins M Fallgren P Ren Z Energy and performance comparison of microbial fuel cell Miyahara M Hashimoto K Watanabe K Use of cassette electrode microbial fuel cell for. and conventional aeration treating of wastewater J Microbial Biochem Technol wastewater treatment J Biosci Bioeng 2013 115 176 81. 2013 http dx doi org 10 4172 1948 5948 S6002 Morel A Zuo K Xia X Wei J Luo X Liang P et al Microbial desalination cells packed with. Jacobson KS Drew DM He Z Use of a liter scale microbial desalination cell as a platform ion exchange resin to enhance water desalination rate Bioresour Technol 2012 118. to study bioelectrochemical desalination with salt solution or arti cial seawater En 43 8. viron Sci Technol 2011 45 4652 7 Morris JM Jin S Feasibility of using microbial fuel cell technology for bioremediation of. Karra U Troop E Curtis M Scheible K Tenaglier C Patel N et al Performance of plug ow hydrocarbons in groundwater J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. microbial fuel cell PF MFC and complete mixing microbial fuel cell CM MFC for 2008 43 18 23. wastewater treatment and power generation Int J Hydrogen Energy 2013 38 Morris JM Jin S Crimi B Pruden A Microbial fuel cell in enhancing anaerobic biodegrada. 5383 8 tion of diesel Chem Eng J 2009 146 161 7, Keller J Rabaey K Experiences from MFC pilot plant operation how to get the technology Nevin KP Woodard TL Franks AE Summers ZM Lovley DR Microbial electrosynthesis. market ready Microbial Fuel Cells First International Symposium State College PA feeding microbes electricity to convert carbon dioxide and water to multicarbon ex. USA 2008 tracellular organic compounds mBio 2010 1 e00103 10. Kim Y Logan BE Hydrogen production from inexhaustible supplies of fresh and salt water Nevin KP Hensley SA Franks AE Summers ZM Ou J Woodard TL et al Electrosynthesis. using microbial reverse electrodialysis electrolysis cells Proc Natl Acad Sci of organic compounds from carbon dioxide is catalyzed by a diversity of acetogenic. 2011a 108 16176 81 microorganisms Appl Environ Microbiol 2011 77 2882 6. Kim Y Logan BE Microbial reverse electrodialysis cells for synergistically enhanced Nielsen ME Reimers CE HAS III Enhanced power from chambered benthic microbial fuel. power production Environ Sci Technol 2011b 45 5834 9 cells Environ Sci Technol 2007 41 7895 900. Kim Y Logan BE Series assembly of microbial desalination cells containing stacked elec Oh ST Kim JR Premier GC Lee TH Kim C Sloan WT Sustainable wastewater treatment. trodialysis cells for partial or complete seawater desalination Environ Sci Technol how might microbial fuel cells contribute Biotechnol Adv 2010 28 871 81. 2011c 45 5840 5 Pant D Bogaert GV Diels L Vanbroekhoven K A review of the substrates used in micro. Kim Y Logan BE Microbial desalination cells for energy production and desalination De bial fuel cells MFCs for sustainable energy production Bioresour Technol 2010 101. salination 2013a 308 122 30 1533 43, H Wang Z J Ren Biotechnology Advances 31 2013 1796 1807 1807. Pant D Singh A Bogaert GV Gallego YA Diels L Vanbroekhoven K An introduction to the life Sun M Sheng G Zhang L Xia C Mu Z Liu X et al An MEC MFC coupled system for. cycle assessment LCA of bioelectrochemical systems BES for sustainable energy and biohydrogen production from acetate Environ Sci Technol 2008 42 8095 100. product generation relevance and key aspects Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2011 15 Tanaka K Vega CA Tamamushi R Mediating effects of ferric chelate compound in micro. 1305 13 bial fuel cells Bioelectrochem Bioenerg 1983 11 135 43. Parameswaran P Torres CI Lee H S Krajmalnik Brown R Rittmann BE Syntrophic inter Tender LM Reimers CE HAS III Holmes DE Bond DR Lowy DA et al Harnessing. actions among anode respiring bacteria ARB and non ARB in a bio lm anode elec microbially generated power on the sea oor Nat Biotechnol 2002 20 821 5. tron balances Biotechnol Bioeng 2009 103 513 23 Tender LM Gray SA Groveman E Lowy DA Kauffman P Melhado J et al The rst dem. Park J D Ren Z Hysteresis controller based maximum power point tracking energy onstration of a microbial fuel cell as a viable power supply powering a meteorolog. harvesting system for microbial fuel cells J Power Sources 2012 205 151 6 ical buoy J Power Sources 2008 179 571 5. Park DH Zeikus JG Electricity generation in microbial fuel cells using neutral red as an Thorne R Hu H Schneider K Bombelli P Fisher A Peter LM et al Porous ceramic anode. electronophore Appl Environ Microbiol 2000 66 1292 7 materials for photo microbial fuel cells J Mater Chem 2011 21 18055 60. Park HS Kim BH Kim HS Kim HJ Kim G Kim M et al A novel electrochemically active Thurston CF Bennetto HP Delaney GM Mason JR Roller SD Stirling JL Glucose metabo. and Fe III reducing bacterium phylogenetically related to Clostridium butyricum iso lism in a microbial fuel cell stoichiometry of product formation in a thionine. lated from a microbial fuel cell Anaerobe 2001 7 297 306 mediated Proteus vulgaris fuel cell and its relation to Coulombic yields J Gen. Pham H Boon N Marzorati M Verstraete W Enhanced removal of 1 2 dichloroethane by Microbiol 1985 131 1391 401. anodophilic microbial consortia Water Res 2009 43 2936 46 Timmers RA Strik DPBTB Hamelers HVM Buisman CJN Long term performance of a. Potter MC Electrical effects accompanying the decomposition of organic compounds plant microbial fuel cell with Spartina anglica Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2010 86. Proc R Soc Lond Ser B 1911 84 260 76 973 81, Qian F Wang G Li Y Solar driven microbial photoelectrochemical cells with a nanowire Torres CI Krajmalnik Brown R Parameswaran P Marcus Ak Wanger G Gorby YA et al. photocathode Nano Lett 2010 10 4686 91 Selecting anode respiring bacteria based on anode potential phylogeneric electro. Qu Y Feng Y Wang X Liu J Lv J He W et al Simultaneous water desalination and elec chemical and microscopic characterization Environ Sci Technol 2009 43 9519 24. tricity generation in a microbial desalination cell with electrolyte recirculation for Torres CI Marcus AK Lee H S Parameswaran P Krajmalnik Brown R Rittmann BE A ki. pH control Bioresour Technol 2012 106 89 94 netic perspective on extracellular electron transfer by anode respiring bacteria FEMS. Rabaey K Rozendal RA Microbial electrosynthesis revisiting the electrical route for mi Microbiol Rev 2010 34 3 17. crobial production Nat Rev Microbiol 2010 8 706 16 Velasquez Orta SB Curtis TP Logan BE Energy from algae using microbial fuel cells. Rabaey K Lissens G Siciliano SD Verstraete W A microbial fuel cell capable of converting Biotechnol Bioeng 2009 103 1068 76. glucose to electricity at high rate and ef ciency Biotechnol Lett 2003 25 1531 5 Wang G Huang L Zhang Y Cathodic reduction of hexavalent chromium Cr VI coupled. Rabaey K Boon N H fte M Verstraete W Microbial phenazine production enhances elec with electricity generation in microbial fuel cells Biotechnol Lett 2008 30 1959 66. tron transfer in biofuel cells Environ Sci Technol 2005a 39 3401 8 Wang X Feng Y Liu J Lee H Li C Li N et al Sequestration of CO2 discharged from anode. Rabaey K Clauwaert P Aelterman P Verstraete W Tubular microbial fuel cells for ef by algal cathode in microbial carbon capture cells MCCs Biosens Bioelectron. cient electricity generation Environ Sci Technol 2005b 39 8077 82 2010 25 2639 43. Rabaey K Sompel KVD Maignien L Boon N Aelterman P Clauwaert P et al Microbial fuel Wang H Park J D Ren Z Active energy harvesting from microbial fuel cells at the maxi. cells for sul de removal Environ Sci Technol 2006 40 5218 24 mum power point without using resistors Environ Sci Technol 2012 46 5247 52. Rabaey K Butzer S Brown S Keller J Rozendal RA High current generation coupled to Wang X Cai Z Zhou Q Zhang Z Chen C Bioelectrochemical stimulation of petroleum hy. caustic production using a lamellar bioelectrochemical system Environ Sci Technol drocarbon degradation in saline soil using U tube microbial fuel cells Biotechnol. 2010 44 4315 21 Bioeng 2012 109 426 33, Rabaey K Girguis P Nielsen LK Metabolic and practical considerations on microbial Wei J Liang P Huang X Recent progress in electrodes for microbial fuel cells Bioresour.
electrosynthesis Curr Opin Biotechnol 2011 22 371 7 Technol 2011 102 9335 44. Reimers CE Tender LM Fertig S Wang W Harvesting energy from the marine sediment Williams KH Nevin KP Franks A Englert A Long PE Lovley DR An electrode based ap. water interface Environ Sci Technol 2001 35 192 5 proach for monitoring in situ microbial activity during subsurface bioremediation En. Ren Z Chapter 19 the principle and applications of bioelectrochemical systems In Gupta viron Sci Technol 2010 44 47 54. VK Tuohy MG editors Biofuel technol Springer 2013 p 501 27 Xiao L Young EB Berges JA He Z Integrated photo bioelectrochemical system for con. Ren Z Ward TE Regan JM Electricity production from cellulose in a microbial fuel cell taminants removal and bioenergy production Environ Sci Technol 2012 46. using a de ned binary culture Environ Sci Technol 2007 41 4781 6 11459 66. Ren Z Steinberg LM Regan JM Electricity production and microbial bio lm characteriza Yagishita T Sawayama S Tsukahara K Ogi T Effects of intensity of incident light and con. tion in cellulose fed microbial fuel cells Water Sci Technol 2008 58 623 8 centrations of Synechococcus sp and 2 hydroxy 1 4 naphthoquinone on the current. Rosenbaum M Schr der U Scholz F In situ electrooxidation of photobiological hydrogen output of photosynthetic electrochemical cell Sol Energy 1997 61 347 53. in a photobioelectrochemical fuel cell based on Rhodobacter sphaeroides Environ Sci Yuan Y Zhou S Zhuang L A new approach to in situ sediment remediation based on. Technol 2005 39 6328 33 air cathode microbial fuel cells J Soils Sediments 2010 10 1427 33. Rozendal RA Hamelers HVM Euverink GJW Metz SJ Buismana CJN Principle and per Yuan L Yang X Liang P Wang L Huang Z H Wei J et al Capacitive deionization coupled. spectives of hydrogen production through biocatalyzed electrolysis Int J Hydrogen with microbial fuel cells to desalinate low concentration salt water Bioresour. Energy 2006 31 1632 40 Technol 2012 110 735 8, Rozendal RA Hamelers HVM Rabaey K Keller J Buisman CJN Towards practical implemen Zhang Y Angelidaki I Innovative self powered submersible microbial electrolysis cell. tation of bioelectrochemical wastewater treatment Trends Biotechnol 2008 26 450 9 SMEC for biohydrogen production from anaerobic reactors Water Res 2012a 46. Rozendal RA Leone E Keller J Rabaey K Ef cient hydrogen peroxide generation from or 2727 36. ganic matter in a bioelectrochemical system Electrochem Commun 2009 11 1752 5 Zhang Y Angelidaki I Self stacked submersible microbial fuel cell SSMFC for improved. Schamphelaire LD Verstraete W Revival of the biological sunlight to biogas energy con remote power generation from lake sediments Biosens Bioelectron 2012b 35. version system Biotechnol Bioeng 2009 103 296 304 265 70. Schamphelaire LD Bossche LVD Dang HS Hofte M Boon N Rabaey K et al Microbial fuel Zhang Y Angelidaki I A simple and rapid method for monitoring dissolved oxygen in. cells generating electricity from rhizodeposits of rice plants Environ Sci Technol water with a submersible microbial fuel cell SBMFC Biosens Bioelectron. 2008 42 3053 8 2012c 38 189 94, Schr der U Discover the possibilities microbial bioelectrochemical systems and the re Zhang Y Angelidaki I A new method for in situ nitrate removal from groundwater using. vival of a 100 year old discovery J Solid State Electrochem 2011 15 1481 6 submerged microbial desalination denitri cation cell SMDDC Water Res 2013 47. Schr der U Microbial fuel cells and microbial electrochemistry into the next century 1827 36. ChemSusChem 2012 5 959 61 Zhang B He Z Integrated salinity reduction and water recovery in an osmotic microbial. Scott K Murano C Microbial fuel cells utilising carbohydrates J Chem Technol Biotechnol desalination cell RSC Adv 2012 2 3265 9. 2007 82 92 100 Zhang C Li M Liu G Luo H Zhang R Pyridine degradation in the microbial fuel cells J. Sleutels THJA Heijne AT Buisman CJN Hamelers HVM Bioelectrochemical systems an Hazard Mater 2009 172 465 71. outlook for practical applications ChemSusChem 2012 5 1012 9 Zhang T Gannon SM Nevin KP Franks AE Lovley DR Stimulating the anaerobic degrada. Steinbusch KJJ Hamelers HVM Schaap JD Kampman C Buisman CJN Bioelectrochemical tion of aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated sediments by providing an electrode. ethanol production through mediated acetate reduction by mixed cultures Environ as the electron acceptor Environ Microbiol 2010 12 1011 20. Sci Technol 2010 44 513 7 Zhang X Cheng S Huang X Logan BE The use of nylon and glass ber lter separators. Strik DPBTB Terlouw H Hamelers HVM Buisman CJN Renewable sustainable with different pore sizes in air cathode single chamber microbial fuel cells Energy. biocatalyzed electricity production in a photosynthetic algal microbial fuel cell Environ Sci 2010 3 659 64. PAMFC Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2008a 81 659 68 Zhang F Brastad KS He Z Integrating forward osmosis into microbial fuel cells for waste. Strik DPBTB Bert HVMH Snel JFH Buisman CJN Green electricity production with living water treatment water extraction ad bioelectricity generation Environ Sci Technol. plants and bacteria in a fuel cell Int J Energy Res 2008b 32 870 6 2011 45 6690 6. Strik DPBTB Hamelers HVM Buisman CJN Solar energy powered microbial fuel cell with Zhang B Zhang J Yang Q Feng C Zhu Y Ye Z et al Investigation and optimization of the. a reversible bioelectrode Environ Sci Technol 2010 44 532 7 novel UASB MFC integrated system for sulfate removal and bioelectricity generation. Strik DPBTB Timmers RA Helder M Steinbusch KJJ Hamelers HVM Buisman CJN Micro using the response surface methodology RSM Bioresour Technol 2012 124 1 7. bial solar cells applying photosynthetic and electrochemically active organisms Zhu X Hatzell MC Cusick RD Logan BE Microbial reverse electrodialysis. Trends Biotechnol 2011 29 41 9 chemical production cell for acid and alkali production Electrochem Commun. Summers ZM Fogarty HE Leang C Franks AE Malvankar NS Lovley DR Direct exchange 2013 31 52 5. of electrons within aggregates of an evolved syntrophic coculture of anaerobic bacte Zou Y Pisciotta J Billmyre RB Baskakov IV Photosynthetic microbial fuel cells with pos. ria Science 2010 330 1413 5 itive light response Biotechnol Bioeng 2009 104 939 46.


Related Books

Excited Delirium Syndrome Final

Excited Delirium Syndrome Final

Excited Delirium Syndrome Jason P. Stopyra, MD FACEP Surry County Medical Director Surry County Medical Examiner Cases Donald Lewis vs. West Palm Beach TASER 2007 Robert Dziekanski vs. Royal Canadian Mounted Police Matthew Bolick in Grand Rapids

Dampak Penerapan Sistem Manajemen Mutu ISO 9001:2000 ...

Dampak Penerapan Sistem Manajemen Mutu ISO 9001 2000

signifikansi 0,000, ... bahan ajar sarana sekolah, ... mandiri (non formal) atau adopsi (formal). 5. Model Proses Sistem Manajemen Mutu

ACEP Excited Delirium Task Force - Prison Legal News

ACEP Excited Delirium Task Force Prison Legal News

Excited Delirium Syndrome ACEP Excited Delirium Task Force September 10, 2009 Amended Resolution 21(08) EXCITED DELIRIUM TASK FORCE _____ TASK FORCE CHAIR Mark L. DeBard, MD, FACEP, Chair Professor of Emergency Medicine Ohio State University College of Medicine Columbus, Ohio TASK FORCE MEMBERS Jason Adler, MD Emergency Medicine Resident University of Maryland Baltimore, Maryland William ...

Securing Control and Communications Systems in Rail ...

Securing Control and Communications Systems in Rail

American Public Transportation Association 1300 I Street, NW, Suite 1200 East, Washington, DC 20006 APTA SS -CCS 004 16 Published: October 26, 2016 Control and Communications Security Working Group This document represents a common viewpoint of those parties concerned with its provisions, namely operating/ planning agencies, manufacturers, consultants, engineers and general interest groups ...

S ADP 033991 Chapter1 - a-research.upi.edu

S ADP 033991 Chapter1 a research upi edu

Sementara pendidikan non formal ... Setelah proses manajemen kelas tersebut dilaksanakan secara optimal, ... materi atau bahan ajar kepada siswa.

USULAN RENCANA PROGRAM DAN KEGIATAN PRIORITAS DAERAH TAHUN ...

USULAN RENCANA PROGRAM DAN KEGIATAN PRIORITAS DAERAH TAHUN

Workshop Pengembangan Bahan Ajar PAUD Provinsi 88 Org 238.901 ... kan Non Formal berprestasi. ... 1.11 Program Manajemen Pelayanan Pendidikan 75.218.905

BAHAN AJAR FISIKA ONLINE UNTUK ... - lib.unnes.ac.id

BAHAN AJAR FISIKA ONLINE UNTUK lib unnes ac id

BAHAN AJAR FISIKA ONLINE UNTUK ... belajar sebesar 0,22 yang berkategori rendah. ... Pendidikan formal, dan non formal dapat menikmati fasilitas

Securing TranSpor TaTion SySTemS

Securing TranSpor TaTion SySTemS

6 securing transportation systems from Radiological threats 109 Eric P. Rubenstein, Gordon A. Drukier, and Peter Zimmerman . viii Contents 7 Protecting transportation Infrastructure against Radiological threat 129 Ilan Yaar, Itzhak Halevy, Zvi Berenstein, and Avi Sharon seCtIon II seCuRIty ConsIdeRatIon FoR Modes otatF tRansIonP o149R 8 securing Public transit systems 151 Martin Wachs, Camille ...

Transportation Industrial Control Systems (ICS ...

Transportation Industrial Control Systems ICS

organization, and risk assessment/management of ICS systems in public transportation. Securing Control and Communications Systems in Transit Environments, Part II: Defining a Security Zone Architecture for Rail Transit and Protecting Critical Zones should be published at the end of 2012 or beginning of 2013. These two standards are good ...

Apa dan Bagiamana Pembinaan Kursus dan Kelembagaan

Apa dan Bagiamana Pembinaan Kursus dan Kelembagaan

Direktur Jenderal Pendidikan Nonformal dan Informal ... Pengembangan Bahan Ajar/Modul Kursus; c) ... (manajemen) pada Direktorat ...