767 Subsistence Based On An Mals In The Harappan Culture-Books Pdf

767 SUBSISTENCE BASED ON AN MALS IN THE HARAPPAN CULTURE
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terrestrial resources 1rf od and indus utilis s comme h Jtes de somme le chien Ziegen und Schweinen z ur Fleischge. trial purposes point to the planned eco comme animal de garde et exploitation winnung Pferden und Eseln ais Last. 110111 i c strategy of the Harappans in d autres ressources aquatiques aviennes tiere Hunden ais Wachtiere und die. Gujarat ou terrestres des fins alimentaires ou Nutzung von anderen Land und Was. industrielles mettent en vidence une sertieren und Vogeln deuten auf eine. strat gie conomique plannifi e par les durchgeplante Wirtschaftsstrategie der. Harapp ens de Gujarat Harappa Kultur in Gujarat hin. Key Words Mots cl s Schl sselworte, Gujamt Haruppmz Fauna Animal Gujaral HarappClt Fa1111 Elevage Gujarat Harappa Ku tur Fauna. husbandn Subsistence En ironment Subsistance Environnement Haustierhaltung Suhsistenz Um1velt. Introduction The bones from clifferent parts of the site show various. In spite of the large number of excavations of the modes of preservation possibly because of water logging. Harappan sites fig 1 precious little is known at present and other taphonomical factors Nine domestic and 22 wilcl. about the Harappan subsistence pattern based on animais species of animais belonging to mammals reptiles and birds. Although the earlier Harappan faunal studies have provided have been iclentified at Kuntasi tab In addition a variety. valuable information about the animais associated with this of fish and crabs which couic not be identified to the species. culture the full scientific potential of the faunal remains has leveL were also found The large quantity of molluscan. not been exploited because of several reasons This creates shells collected at Kuntasi is being stuclicd in detail and so. an ambiguity when the modern studies are compared with far ahout 50 molluscan species have been iclentifiecl. the older ones pertaining to the species stratigraphy and the. quantification Herc is such an attempt of comparison based. on recently analysecl faunal material from a couple of Harap. pan sites Kuntasi and Shikarpur from Gujarat, Kuntasi r Rupar. Kuntasi is located almost at the boundary between, Kutch and Saurashtra on the right bank of river Phulki. Rajkot District Gujarat The present landscape here is. essentially a fiat alluvial plain with scrub vegetation on the. Kalibangan, black soi The area is classifiecl as semi aricl since the. annual average rainfall i less than 600 mm which is. mainly the southwestern precipitation At present there is. 1nl1cnjcr fJaro, very little forest cover in this district Among the vegeta INDIA.
tion accacia trees are common in the whole of the district. The wild fauna is highly diverse where the mammals are. ass panther hyena wolf jackal fox badger wild pig, spotted deer nilgai blackbuck gazella porcupine hedge Surkotada. hog mongoose rabbits etc and the birds such as bulbul Shikarpur j J. partridge cotton teal egret king crow hawk flamingo K Lothal1. ibis stork etc are reported Anonyme 1965 J9 ianpur ye Nanna. The excavation at Kuntasi has brought to light mainly 1 ageshwar. two cultural phases the mature Harappan c 2300 1900. Padri l 1al an, be and the late Harappan c 1900 1700 be Faunal 200 km. material amounting more than 100 000 bone fragments. were collected however the present report is based on a. part of this collection comprising mainly the material from Fig 1 Map showing some of the. important Harappan sites, the 1987 88 excavation, ANTHROPOZOOUJGICA 997 v 25 2fJ. Section V Postpalaeolithic Europe II Asia Africa 769. Table 1 Layer wise distribution of animal species at Kuntasi. Present Absent Species doubtful, PERIOD II PERIOD 1. Cultural Period Late Harappan Mature Harappan, Phase D c B A.
Layer 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19. Domestic animais, Felis dom esticus Cat, Canisf miliaris Dog 1. Equus caballus Horse 1, Equus asinus Ass, Bos indicus Humped cattle. Buhalus bubalis Buffalo 1, Bos Bubalus 1, Capra hircus Goat. Ovis aries Sheep, Capra Ovis, Camelus dromedarius Came. Sus domesticus Dornestic pig, Wild animais, Preshytis ente lus Common langur.
Felis clwus Jungle cat, Canis lupus Wolt, Hyaena hyaena Hyena. Lepus nigricollis Hare, Hystrix indica Porcupine, Herpestes edwardsi Mongoose. Equus hemionus Onager, Rhinoceros unicomis Rhinoceros. Bos sp Wild cattle, Bubalus amee Wilcl buffalo, Boselaphus tragocamelus Nilgai. Antilope ce1Ticapra Black buck, Gazella bennetti Chinkara.
Tetracerus quadricomis Chowsingha, Cervus unicolor Sambar. Cervus duvauceli Barasingha, Axis axis Chital, Axis porcinus Hog deer. Muntiacus muntjak Barking deer, Sus scrofa Wild pig. Pava cristatus Pcacock, Turtleffortoise, Crocodylus sp. ANTl IIOPOZOOLOG CA 1997 N 25 26, Shikarpur although there were industrial and trade centres among.
Locally known as Valamiya Timbo Shikarpur located thcse sites The utility of cattle as an economic strategy. in the Bhachu Taluka of Kutch District is about 5 km may have been manifold In addition to the substantial con. southwest of modern Shikarpur village The excavation has tribution in the form of meat thesc animais may have sup. revealed Harappan cultural debri of more than 3 m thick ported in agricultural operations and also as draught ani. consisting of 19 layers Though the excavation was of a mais Thomas 1989 Their by products like the milk hide. limited frame more than 15 000 bones were unearthed and dung were probably of economic value even though. from the site there are no direct evidences for their use at these sites. The faunal assemblage here revealed tab 2 more Thus the very docile nature of the animal may have been. than fourty five species of animais twenty one species of the reason for their over exploitation. mammals three species of birds two species of reptiles Cattle were slaughtered at different ages however the. five types of fish thirteen species of molluscs and one maximum representation was noticed of adult animais of 3. crustacean species 8 years old This demonstrates that the secondary products. A comparative study of the faunal material from Kun of this animal were also significant in the Harappan econ. tasi and Shikarpur with that of the other Harappan sites of omy The presence of numerous first phalanges as com. this region is essential to understand the different strategies pared to the second and third in the collection suggests the. adopted by the people depending on the nature of the site use of animal hide at the site While removing the hide. location economic conditions ecological factors and social from the carcass the third phalanges and occasionally the. aspects Table 3 gives a list of 16 Harappan sites for which second were removed along with the hide The qualitative. the animal remains were reported which includes a few sex determination was difficult on the bones since they. sites outside Gujarat The absence presence additional were fragmentary lt may be possible at a later stage when. species in some of the sites cannot be takcn seriously into all the measurcments of cattle bones are statistically ana. consideration since these studies were of an incomplete lyzed Since both meat bearing and non meat bearing parts. nature For instance at Rupar Nath 1968 mentions horse were equally represented in the collection it can be pre. and domestic ass in addition to the species listed in table 3 sumed that cattle were butchered and consumed at the site. However Dutta 1984 Sahu 1988 and Sharma 1989 do Thomas 1979 1984 So the importance of this animal in. not mention the occurrence of these equids in the Harappan the general economic and social framework of the site may. levels According to them these animais are represented in have been multiple. the succeeding Painted Grey Ware and Northern Black Pol. ished Warc periods Nath 1962 63 mentions presence of Layers. dog ass and sambar from period III the Lustrous Red. ware period at Rangpur However in his later report 1968 2. he mentions the presence of dog from the earlier cultural 3. phase and the species of the deer in this report is baras 4. ingha in place of sambar These two species of deer have. different habitats In an earlier report on the faunal remains 6. of Surkotada IAR 1971 72 21 animais like hyena wild. pig nilgai and blackbuck were reported whereas in the. final faunal report Sharma 1990 there is no mention of. these animais This is only the tip of the iceberg of prob. lems which illustrate the kind of discrepancies one often. finds in the faunal reports and the possible fallacies they. may generate in interpretations, Domestic animais 18. Cattle bones accounted for more than 70 fig 2 in, the total collection of faunal remains from almost all proto. 0 2 4 6 8 10, historic sites Thomas and Joglekar 1990 Like in other. protohistoric cultural phases cattle pastoralism was one of Fig 2 Contribution of the aquatic. the main occupations for the Harappans of Gujarat fauna at Shikarpur. ANTHROPOZOOLOGlCA 1997 N 25 26, Section V Postpalaeolithic Europe II Asia Africa 771. Table 2 Animais in diffcrent layers at Shikarpur, Presence Absence Possibly wild cattle.
SPECIES LA YERS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19. Domestic animais, Bos indicus, Bos Bubalus, Bubalus bubalis. Capra hircus, Capra Ovis, Ovies aries, Sus domesticus. Equus caballus, Canis familiaris, Gallus domesticus. Wild animais, Bubalus arnee, Boselaphus tragocamelus. Tetracerus quadricornis, Antilope cervicapra, Gazella bennetti.
Axis porcinus, Cervus unicolor, Cervus Axis, Muntiacus muntjak. Sus scrofa, Canis aureus, Rattus rattus, Lepus nigricollis. Equus hemionus, Rhinoceros unicornis, Pavo cristatus. Trionyx gangeticus, Crocodylus porous, Lamellidens sp. Cerithiidae sp, Indoplanorbis exustus, Paphia gallus.
Thias Cymia carinifera, Telescopium telescopium, Anadara rhombea. Monetaria moneta, Chicoreus ramosus, Ellobium aurfajudae. Polinices didyma, Dentalium sp, Turbine la pyrum, AN IHRO OZOOLOGICA 1997 N 25 26. The overall representation of buffalo bones though However the level of contribution of this animal in the diet. sparse was similar to those of cattle and have been repre of the Harappans is not known since only very few bones. sented in a majority of Harappan sites Often from the frag of these animais are found in the Harappan faunal materi. mentary faunal collection it is challcnging to separate out als The presence of other species of equids like Equus asi. certain bones and dentition of cattle from those of buffalo nus and Equus hemionus in this region and bones of which. because of close morphological similarities Thomas in the collection makes the precise species identification. 1977 Buffalo bones may represent about 5 10 in the rather difficult and they are misinterpreted when one is. total collection at Kuntasi and Shikarpur working without the reference skeletons of modern ani. Mutton was usually the second most important item mais Horse bernes found in the Harappan context are often. preferred in the food economy since bernes of sheep and the lower limb extrcmities From Kuntasi as well as from. goat are found at all the sites Again from the archaeologi Shikarpur bones of wild ass with eut marks and charring. cal faunal samples it is often difficult to distinguish have been found in the collection suggesting hunting of. between these two species However the dues on some of these animais for food purposes. the bones Boessneck 1969 suggest that at least at Kun Another domestic species which is usually associated. tasi and Shikarpur goat bones were more numerous in the with the Harappan culture is the domestic fowl and is. collection than those of sheep Unlike cattle sheep and reported from quite a few sites At Khanpur and Babarkot. goats were killed relatively at a younger age which shows the species identification is not certain. that they were preferred for meat rather than for their sec. ondary products like milk wool etc The collection com Wild animais. prises bath meat bearing and non meat bcaring parts in In addition to the domestic stock of animais the Harap. almost equal proportion which indieates rearing and pans exploited numerous species of wild mammals for food. slaughtering of these animais within the settlement as shown in table 3 Gcnerally the ratio of bones of domes. Pork consumption was common among the Harappans tic to wild animais is approximately 4 1 The composition. At Kuntasi and Shikarpur domestic and wild pigs were in of the wild fauna differs from site to site Boues of ele. the ratio of 2 1 The piglets killed probably belonged to the phant rhinoceros wild buffalo and probably wild cattle. domestic species identified thanks to a large number of and several species of antelopes dccr carnivores primates. their dentition The presence of more meat bearing parts or and rodents were reported from a majority of Harappan. the wild pigs in the settlement area suggests that the kill sites from Gujarat Furthermore the aquatic and avian. site was located away from the habitation area and only the resourccs were not spared Bones of various birds turtle. parts having meat were carried into the settlement fish crab and molluscs were associated with the kitchen. Dog bones were identified at almost ail the Harappan refuse The coastal sites have yielded abundant fish. sites and were devoid of any human activity on thcm remains Sorne of these sites are also known for their shell. SUBSISTENCE BASED ON AN MALS IN THE HARAPPAN CULTURE OF GUJARAT INDIA Pappy K THOMAS Pramod P JOGLEKAR Yoshiyuki MATSUSHIMA Seema J PAWANKAR and Arati DESHPANDE Summary Based on the composition of animais identified at a couple of Harappan sites excavated recently in Gujarat and also considering the earlier faunal studies of other Harappan sites here is an attempt to build up a

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