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0010 1177 0305829814541166Millennium Journal of International StudiesCrone. research article2014,MILLENNIUM Journal of International Studies. Solicited Article,Millennium Journal of,Religion and Violence. International Studies,The Author s 2014, Governing Muslim Militancy Reprints and permissions. sagepub co uk journalsPermissions nav,through Aesthetic DOI 10 1177 0305829814541166. mil sagepub com,Assemblages,Manni Crone, Danish Institute for International Studies Denmark.
One of the ways in which the relationship between religion and violence has been con. ceptualized is through the concept of radicalization In the wake of the London bomb. ings radicalization became a favored policy term that was reinvented in order to. manage and prevent the new phenomenon of homegrown terrorism Around 2005 it. was a widespread assumption that homegrown terrorism had a religious dimension. and the concept of radicalization therefore had to articulate how religion and terrorism. were related Most concepts of radicalization describe a cognitive transformation where. the progressive adoption of radical religious ideology is the first step in a process that. eventually could lead to terrorism, The argument that religion and violence are connected through intellectual processes. can also be found in academic literature Max Weber who studied the relation between. religion and practice famously argued that a specific Weltanschauung a protestant eth. ics was paving the way for an ascetic practice that contributed to the growth of capital. ism 1 More precisely it was a specific interpretation or rationalization of religious. dogma the idea of predestination that subsequently made religious actors act in specific. ways Weber s influence on the study of religion before and after 9 11 cannot be overes. timated Recently Cecelia Lynch has proposed a neo Weberian model of how to under. stand the relationship between religion and violence W e must first assess she writes. 1 Max Weber The Protestant Ethic and The Spirit of Capitalism trans Peter Baehr and Gordon. C Wells New York The Free Press 2002,Corresponding author. Manni Crone Senior Researcher Danish Institute for International Studies DIIS Strandgade 56 DK 1401. Copenhagen K Denmark,Email mcr diis dk,2 Millennium Journal of International Studies. what religious guidelines suggest for particular situations and then look more deeply. into how religious actors interpret those guidelines how they bridge the gap between. religious rules and particular situations to decide how to act 2 In the same vein. Juergensmeyer Sheikh have argued that the key to understanding the religion vio. lence nexus is to scrutinize the epistemic worldviews of violent actors According to. this socio theological approach the important question is not why the violent actors. did what they did but how they viewed the world in such a way that would allow these. actions to be carried out 3, The aim of this paper is to challenge this intellectualist vision of violence I question. that pathways to religious violence are primarily cognitive and suggest that processes of. radicalization also imply embodied practices of self government The notion of self. government is inspired by Foucault s somehow neglected notion of care of the self. which implies that individuals can adopt an art of existence i e a practice through. which they strive to modify and transform themselves 4 This transformation which. eventually will allow someone to embrace violent militancy is not only intellectual but. also implies a transformation of the body and various body techniques 5 Curiously. concepts of radicalization as well as IR discussions about religion and violence tend to. make abstraction from the body But by abstracting from the body we miss an absolutely. critical dimension of violence Violence religious or other is often performed by bod. ies or directed against bodies, From this suggestion to include the body and the body techniques I turn to the.
empirical question of how young Europeans currently bring about such a bodily transfor. mation or how they govern themselves to embrace religious violence what are the inter. national technologies of the self through which religious militancy becomes possible In. order to answer this question I consider the current rise of visual and social media to. suggest that religious violence in Europe today is largely enabled by aesthetic technolo. gies of the self such as for instance jihad and martyr videos These aesthetic technolo. gies are international in the sense that they are used across geographical borders Young. men6 in Europe can for instance use jihad videos produced in Syria or Somalia to trans. form themselves to embrace religious violence When it comes to Muslim militancy. which is the focus of this article aesthetic technologies currently sidetrack traditional. intellectual technologies of the self as the Koran the fatwa or Islamist doctrine In con. trast to intellectual technologies that primarily work through the intellect and make use. 2 Cecelia Lynch A Neo Weberian Approach to Understanding Religion and Violence. Millenium Journal of International Studies this issue italics added. 3 Mark Juergensmeyer and Mona Kanwal Sheikh A Sociotheological Approach to. Understanding Religious Violence in The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Violence eds. Mark Juergensmeyer et al New York Oxford University Press 2013 627. 4 Michel Foucault Histoire de la sexualit vol 3 Paris Gallimard 1984 59 Michel Foucault. L Herm neutique du sujet Paris Gallimard Seuil 2001 12. 5 Marcel Mauss Les techniques du corps Journal de Psychologie XXXII no 3 4 1934. 6 I refer to young men because young men are extremely overrepresented in violent milieus. and jihad videos make visible masculine environments where women practically never. appear in the visual frame, of linguistics aesthetic technologies are assemblages in which speech visualities. sound and materialities interact in ways that produce specific frames of violence 7. Such jihad frames materialize masculine bodies in interaction with religious artifacts. and ornamentation, This article does not propose a fixed definition of religion In line with other scholars. as for instance Talal Asad I consider religion to be a historical category which can. therefore be examined genealogically in its various articulations and configurations 8. Inspired by Saba Mahmood I suggest that religion is always local and particular per. taining to a specific set of procedures techniques and discourses through which highly. specific ethical moral subjects come to be formed 9 By considering religion in these. terms my approach differs from Max Weber who as mentioned would locate the forms. of religion that could have an influence on practice in the actor s contextualized interpre. tation or rationalization of religious dogma In terms of methodology I approach reli. gion ethnographically I understand religion as a common sense category where. religion is initially taken to be what various actors including the scientist in a context. of relatively shared sensibilities and epistemic attitudes name or inscribe10 as religion. This religion can materialize not only as text and speech but also as bodies clothing. performance sound songs etc A group of young men that I was talking to for instance. called themselves ahl e sunna people of the sunna and at the trial of their friends. performed their deen religion by ostentatiously praying in public There might not. be total consensus about what religion is or about what things qualify as religious but. in a specific context of shared sensibilities and epistemic attitudes there will probably be. a relatively shared common sense about religion that will at least allow for a negotia. tion of the category, I don t consider religious violence as a nexus linking two distinct entities together in. such a way that religion is somehow the precondition of violence Hence there is no causal. relation between religion and violence and religious bodies are not considered to be par. ticularly violence prone At particular moments however religion and violence may con. tingently assemble in a specific but transient configuration In contexts where religious. violence takes on a political significance it will in some ways resemble other forms of. violence that convey a social critique as well as political imaginaries fantasies utopias. Initially the article makes an empirical claim it strives to make sense of how a contin. gent assemblage of religion and violence is currently articulated in a specific context. Denmark But from this empirical point of departure which is underpinned by a. 7 Judith Butler Frames of War London and New York Verso 2010. 8 Cf in particular Talal Asad Genealogies of Religion Discipline and Reasons of Power. in Christianity and Islam Baltimore The Johns Hopkins University Press 1993 and. Formations of the Secular Christianity Islam Modernity Stanford Stanford University. Press 2003, 9 Saba Mahmood The Politics of Piety The Islamic Revival and the Feminist Subject Princeton. Princeton University Press 2005 28, 10 John Law suggests that scientific method is a creative process of inscribing which creates.
specific realities Cf John Law After Method Mess in Social Science Research London. New York Routledge 2004,4 Millennium Journal of International Studies. fieldwork experience11 I set out to give a theoretical account of how religion as enacted. and materialized in jihad videos can enable violence jihad and eventually martyrdom Or. more precisely the article attempts to reframe the idea of a relationship between religion. and violence where the one is enabling the other Religion and violence can of course be. analytically distinct nevertheless if we consider pathways to religious violence I suggest. that religion and violence are co constitutive and always already empirically entangled. through various techniques of the body 12 The notion of body technique which is. akin to the notion of habitus includes not only the physical body but also its ornamen. tation practices inclinations and habits as well as the practical and theoretical reasons. involved in such bodily behavior, A number of scholars have recently touched upon the role of visual technologies for. international government and security 13 Although inspired by this literature the present. article offers a slightly different perspective For one thing the religious technologies of. the self are not conceived of as merely visual but more precisely as aesthetic assem. blages i e as technologies that juxtapose linguistics sound images and matter For. another the focus is not on how aesthetic technologies affect an audience or how they. conduct the conduct of others I do not ask for instance how al Qaeda or similar groups. use jihad videos to recruit or radicalize young men in Europe Instead I focus on the. micro politics of militancy and ask how young men in Europe14 use international aesthetic. technologies to govern and transform themselves to become Muslim activists In other. words I take the perspective of the audience which is neither seen as the passive. receiver of a rhetorical speech act15 nor as a crowd 16 but as subjects that although not. 11 The focus of the article is made possible by three years of regular contact to a milieu in. Copenhagen including people who have been convicted accused or acquitted in four terror. ist trials Moreover I have assisted at three trials which have been the occasion to meet up. with these people in the first place and subsequently see them outside the courtroom in a. mosque in a caf in a private home at a research institution Moreover I have had access to. material presented during the trials room surveillance telephone surveillance surveillance. of internet usage etc Although such material is biased it has nevertheless given me a glimpse. of how the young men in this environment use jihad videos. 12 Marcel Mauss Les techniques du corps, 13 Roland Bleiker The Aesthetic Turn in International Political Theory Millennium Journal. of International Studies 30 no 3 2001 Michael C Williams Words images enemies. Securitization and international politics International Studies Quarterly 47 no 4 2003. Lene Hansen Theorizing the Image for Security Studies Visual Securitization and the. Muhammad Cartoon Crisis European Journal of International Relations 17 no 1 2011. Claudia Aradau and Rens van Munster Politics of Catastrophe Oxon Routledge 2011. Elspeth van Veeren Materialities Visualities Securities On the Assembly of a Security. Discourse paper presented at a CAST research seminar Visuality Security Documentaries. University of Copenhagen February 14 2012, 14 Although my empirical work is located in Denmark I consider that the arguments about aes. thetic assemblages and body techniques are relevant in a broader European context. 15 Ole Waever Securitization and Desecuritization in On Security ed RD Lipschutz New. York Columbia University Press 1995 46 87, 16 Christian Borch The Politics of Crowds An Alternative History of Sociology Cambridge.
Cambridge University Press 2013, entirely autonomous or free are nevertheless able to transform themselves through. the imitation of religious bodies that materialize in militant videos. Pondering the question of how young men in Europe currently engage with religious. Page Proof Instructions and Queries Journal Title Millennium Journal of International Studies Article Number 541166 Greetings and thank you for publishing with SAGE We have prepared this page proof for your review

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