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45316Solso 10 24 03 5 29 AM Page 1 The Psychology of Art
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The Psychology of Art and the Evolution of the,Conscious Brain. MIT Press Bradford Books Series in Cognitive Psychology. Stephen E Palmer editor, A Dynamic Systems Approach to Development Applications edited by Linda B Smith and. Esther Thelen 1993, A Dynamic Systems Approach to the Development of Cognition and Action edited by Esther. Thelen and Linda B Smith 1994, Cognition and the Visual Arts by Robert L Solso 1994. Indirect Perception edited by Irvin Rock 1996, Perceiving Talking Faces From Speech Perception to a Behavioral Principle by Dominic W.
Massaro 1997, Inattentional Blindness by Arien Mack and Irvin Rock 1998. Fleeting Memories Cognition of Brief Visual Stimuli edited by Veronika Coltheart 1999. The Psychology of Art and the Evolution of the Conscious Brain by Robert L Solso. The Psychology of Art and the Evolution of the,Conscious Brain. Robert L Solso,The MIT Press,Cambridge Massachusetts. London England,2003 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced in any form by any electronic or. mechanical means including photocopying recording or information storage and retrieval. without permission in writing from the publisher, This book was set in Bembo by Graphic Composition Inc.
Printed and bound in the United States of America, Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data. Solso Robert L 1933, The psychology of art and the evolution of the conscious brain Robert L Solso. p cm MIT Press Bradford Books series in cognitive psychology. Includes bibliographical references and index,ISBN 0 262 19484 8 hc alk paper. 1 Consciousness 2 Cognition 3 Brain Evolution 4 Visual perception 5 Art Psychology. I Title II Series,BF311 S652 2003,701 15 dc21,2003042131. This book is lovingly dedicated to two of the best friends any man could have. Connie Juel and Ron Randolph Wall,Series Foreword xi.
Preface xiii,Introduction Art a Tutorial 1,Nativistic Perception and Directed Perception 2. Nativistic Perception Applied to the Raft 4,Directed Perception Applied to the Raft 5. Nude Descending a Staircase No 2 8,Rebound 10,Art Meets Science 13. 1 Art and the Rise of Consciousness 15,Changes in Science Changes in Art 18. Traditional Ways of Understanding Art Psychophysical. Dualism 19,Art and Mind A Unitary View 21,The Evolution of Art and Consciousness 24.
The Rise of Consciousness as a Scienti c Topic 25,AWAREness The Five Facets of Consciousness 26. From Nucleotides to Newton 36,viii Contents,2 Art and Evolution 39. The New and Improved Brain and Technology Art,Language and Culture 41. Neanderthals Cro Magnons and Dogs That Can t Hunt 46. The Cognitive Big Bang 51,The Cognitive Blueprint 58. Environmental and Dietary Changes 62,Brains and Adaptation 66.
The Evolution of the Brain 69,3 Art and Vision 73,Visual AWAREness 73. Seeing with Brain and Eye The Dynamic Properties,of Vision 76. The Eye 82,Beautiful Colors 92,From the Eye to the Brain 97. The Visual System and the Perception of Art 99,4 Art and the Brain 107. The Evolution of the Consciously AWARE Brain 108, The Cognitive Big Bang and the Emergence of Art 113.
What Brains Do 117,Raphael s Brain 129,5 About Face 133. Faces Are Special in Art 140,Domain Speci city and Faces 141. What the Portrait Artist s Brain Sees 149,The Face as a Re ection of the Inner Person 163. Contents ix,6 Illusions Sensory Cognitive and Artistic 169. Sensory Illusions Truth or Fiction 170,Cognitive Illusions Twisting Truth 172.
Visual Illusions 178,Artistic Illusions 184,First Order Isomorphism and Proto Isomorphism 194. 7 Perspective The Art of Illusion 197,Seeing a 3D World with a 2D Eye 197. Principles of Depth Perception Where Is It 201, Recumbent Figures Why They Are So Hard to Draw 215. 8 Art and Schemata 223,Schemata 223,Visual Dissonance 235. Canonic Representations 240,Representational Art Abstract Art 248.
A Cognitive Neuroscience Theory of Aesthetics 254,References 265. Series Foreword, This series presents de nitive works on cognition viewed from a psychological. perspective including undergraduate and graduate textbooks reference works. research monographs and edited volumes Among the wide variety of topics. addressed are perception attention imagery memory learning categorization. language problem solving thinking and cognitive development Although the. primary emphasis is on presenting psychological theories and ndings most. volumes in the series are interdisciplinary attempting to develop important con. nections between cognitive psychology and the related elds of anthropology. computer science education linguistics neuroscience and philosophy. Stephen E Palmer, This book grew out of my lifelong interest in cognition and art That interest found. an outlet in the book Cognition and the Visual Arts published in 1994 by the MIT. Press in which I wrote Art and cognition have always stood as two convex mir. rors each re ecting and amplifying the other That general observation still holds. but with the current work I would augment it to read Art and cognition and the. brain and consciousness and evolution have all stood as complex mirrors all re. ecting and amplifying each other, In the decade since the rst book was published we have reached a higher. vantage point because of the extraordinary growth in studies of cognitive neuro. science and human consciousness These studies are supplemented by new views. in anthropology and art history From this enhanced viewpoint we may see farther. and more clearly into the nature of the brain and of art. Some chapters of this book draw on sections of Cognition and the Visual Arts. but the focus here di ers signi cantly from that book s From its beginnings I. sought an answer to the question as to what type of conscious brain guided the. hand that created the art that rst appeared on earth many years ago. Human consciousness has intrigued people almost as much as art and yet few. scientists have been audacious enough to explore the relationship between the two. In searching for a rational connection between consciousness and art it was neces. sary to examine the evolution of the human brain and cognition Out of these sci. enti c explorations I have developed a new model describing the evolution of. consciousness and its relationship to the emergence of art. Consciousness did not strike humankind like a thunderbolt but developed. gradually and unevenly over millennia Theories of consciousness evolution brain. development and art have sometimes been based on overly simpli ed views The. present theory which I call conscious AWAREness di ers from some previous. theories in the respect that consciousness is conceptualized as having several. xiv Preface, distinct components that evolved over a long period of time Some components.
appeared millions of years ago and some continue to evolve today Relatively re. cently people developed a multifaceted kind of adaptive consciousness that in. cluded the ability to imagine nonpresent objects Such imagery was exhibited in. artistic expression However before such consciousness could evolve it was neces. sary that the brain change, Throughout this book you will nd data drawn from anthropology neuro. science nutrition art history and cognitive psychology Recent developments in. these areas have provided important conceptual and factual information from. which a larger theory might be fabricated of how the brain produces art. We have a pretty good idea for example as to when and how the human. brain evolved and when early art emerged and we have a sound understanding of. the workings of the sensory cognitive system With this knowledge in hand it is. propitious to consider the evolution of the human brain and the emergence of. AWAREness as they might be related to art As the brain increased in size and ca. pacity during the upper Pleistocene additional components of consciousness were. added or developed People became more AWARE in the sense that they were. more cognizant not only of a world that existed in contemporaneous actuality but. of a world that could be imaged That change took humankind on a wondrous voy. age Men and women could imagine nonpresent things such as what might be be. hind a bush where fresh water might be found and what a nonpresent bull might. look like While other animals had some forms of consciousness the visionary. aptitude of humans to extend consciousness beyond responding to moment to. moment sensory experiences was spinning into new possibilities previously unseen. on this earth Equipped with expanded conscious AWAREness people rst cre. ated art and then technology The beginning of art is a clear manifestation of the. brain s capacity for imaginative behavior, My personal interest in cognitive neuroscience and art was further kindled. when I studied a well known British artist undergoing a brain scan as he drew a. portrait In the past experiments of this type were unknown to scientists and art. theorists Exciting new discoveries such as those provided by brain imaging tech. nology have greatly expanded our understanding of how the human sensory sys. tem and brain process information such as in art language and technology. Human information processing has traditionally been the domain of cogni. tive psychology which over the past half century has given us a fresh view of sen. sation perception cognition and thinking Cognitive studies along with recent. neurocognitive and anthropological discoveries have made it possible to develop a. theory of consciousness based on the evolution of the brain I propose that art pro.


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