Empirical correlates of the MMPI-Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales in mental health, forensic, and non-clinical settings: An introduction. Journal of Personality
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Uniform T Scores,Development to assure that T scores have same. meaning across scales,PercenLle Equivalents,High scores T 65. Do not interpret low scores,Heterogeneity of Scales. Consider descriptors as tentaLve,Determine which descriptors to emphasize. Harris Lingoes subscales,Content and Content Component scales. Restructured Clinical RC scales, MMPI 2 Training Slides University of Minnesota Press 2015 Copyright for all MMPI and MMPI 2 materials are held by the Regents of the University of Minnesota. Interpre ve Tables,Based on MMPI and MMPI 2 literature. Descriptors for moderate elevaWons also apply to higher. Same interpretaWon for men and women on most scales. Pathology and personality descriptors at very high. levels only personality descriptors at moderately high. SCALE 1 HYPOCHONDRIASIS Hs, T 75 Extreme and someWmes bizarre somaWc concerns consider somaWc. delusions chronic pain, T 65 74 SomaWc complaints may develop somaWc symptoms in Wmes of. stress chronic pain, T 55 64 SomaWc complaints lacks energy demanding dissaWs ed. complaining whiny,T 45 54 Average score no interpretaWon. T 45 Low score no interpretaWon,Harris Lingoes None. MMPI 2 Training Slides University of Minnesota Press 2015 Copyright for all MMPI and MMPI 2 materials are held by the Regents of the University of Minnesota. SCALE 2 DEPRESSION D, T 75 Serious clinical depression suicidal ideaWon feelings of unworthiness. and inadequacy, T 65 74 Moderate depression worried somaWc complaints. T 55 64 DissaWs ed with life situaWon introverted withdrawn restricted range. of interests lacking in self con dence,T 45 54 Average score no interpretaWon. T 45 Low score no interpretaWon,Harris Lingoes,D1 SubjecWve Depression. D2 Psychomotor RetardaWon,D3 Physical MalfuncWoning. D4 Mental Dullness,D5 Brooding,SCALE 3 HYSTERIA Hy. T 75 Extreme somaWc complaints consider conversion disorder reacts to. stress by developing somaWc symptoms which may disappear when. stress subsides chronic pain, T 65 74 SomaWc symptoms chronic pain lacks insight concerning causes of. T 55 64 SomaWc complaints denial immature self centered demanding. suggesWble a liaWve,T 45 54 Average score no interpretaWon. T 45 Low score no interpretaWon,Harris Lingoes,Hy1 Denial of Social Anxiety. Hy2 Need for A ecWon,Hy3 Lassitude Malaise,Hy4 SomaWc Complaints. Hy5 InhibiWon of Aggression, MMPI 2 Training Slides University of Minnesota Press 2015 Copyright for all MMPI and MMPI 2 materials are held by the Regents of the University of Minnesota. SCALE 4 PSYCHOPATHIC DEVIATE Pd,T 75 AnWsocial behavior trouble with the law. T 65 74 Rebellious non conforming family problems impulsive angry. irritable dissaWs ed creaWve underachievement poor work history. T 55 64 unconvenWonal immature self centered,super cial relaWonships extroverted energeWc. T 45 54 Average score no interpretaWon,T 45 Low score no interpretaWon. Harris Lingoes,Pd1 Familial Discord,Pd2 Authority Problems. Pd3 Social Imperturbability,Pd4 Social AlienaWon,Pd5 Self AlienaWon. MASCULINITY FEMININITY Mf,T 65 Lacks tradiWonal masculine interests. T 45 64 Interests similar to most men,T 45 TradiWonal masculine interests macho. T 65 Rejects tradiWonal feminine role,T 45 64 Interests similar to most women. T 45 TradiWonal feminine interests may be androgynous. MMPI 2 Training Slides University of Minnesota Press 2015 Copyright for all MMPI and MMPI 2 materials are held by the Regents of the University of Minnesota. SCALE 6 PARANOIA Pa, T 75 PsychoWc symptoms including delusions of persecuWon and ideas of. T 65 74 Paranoid style guarded extremely sensiWve to opinions of others may. feel mistreated blames others suspicious resenkul withdrawn. hosWle and argumentaWve, T 55 64 Overly sensiWve guarded distruskul angry resenkul. T 45 54 Average score no interpretaWon,T 45 Low score no interpretaWon. Harris Lingoes,Pa1 Persecutory Ideas,Pa2 Poignancy. Pa3 Naivete,SCALE 7 PSYCHASTHENIA Pt, T 75 Extreme psychological turmoil e g fear anxiety tension. depression intruding thoughts unable to concentrate obsessive. compulsive symptoms, T 65 74 Moderate anxiety depression faWgue insomnia bad dreams. guilt perfecWonism feels unaccepted, T 55 64 Anxious tense uncomfortable insecure lacks self con dence. meWculous indecisive shy introverted,T 45 54 Average score no interpretaWon. T 45 Low score no interpretaWon,Harris Lingoes None. MMPI 2 Training Slides University of Minnesota Press 2015 Copyright for all MMPI and MMPI 2 materials are held by the Regents of the University of Minnesota. SCALE 8 SCHIZOPHRENIA Sc, T 75 Confused disorganized thinking hallucinaWons and or delusions impaired contact. with reality rule out medical condiWons substance abuse. T 65 74 Schizoid life style unusual beliefs eccentric behaviors confused fearful sad. somaWc complaints uninvolved excessive fantasy and daydreaming. T 55 64 Limited interest in other people impracWcal feelings of inadequacy and insecurity. T 45 54 Average score no interpretaWon,T 45 Low score no interpretaWon. Harris Lingoes,Sc1 Social AlienaWon,Sc2 EmoWonal AlienaWon. Sc3 Lack of Ego Mastery CogniWve,Sc4 Lack of Ego Mastery ConaWve. Sc5 Lack of Ego Mastery DefecWve InhibiWon,Sc6 Bizarre Sensory Experiences. SCALE 9 HYPOMANIA Ma, T 75 Manic symptoms including excessive purposeless acWvity. hallucinaWons delusions of grandeur confusion ight of ideas. T 65 74 Excessive energy lacks direcWon conceptual disorganizaWon unrealisWc. self appraisal impulsive low frustraWon tolerance, T 55 64 AcWve energeWc extroverted creaWve rebellious enterprising impulsive. T 45 54 Average score no interpretaWon,T 45 Low score no interpretaWon. Harris Lingoes,Ma1 Amorality,Ma2 Psychomotor AcceleraWon. Ma3 Imperturbability,Ma4 Ego In aWon, MMPI 2 Training Slides University of Minnesota Press 2015 Copyright for all MMPI and MMPI 2 materials are held by the Regents of the University of Minnesota. SCALE 0 SOCIAL INTROVERSION Si,T 75 Extreme social withdrawal avoidance. T 65 74 Introverted depressed guilty slow personal tempo lacks self. con dence lacks interests submissive compliant emoWonally over. controlled, T 55 64 Shy Wmid lacks self con dence reliable dependable. T 45 54 Average score no interpretaWon,T 45 Extroverted gregarious self reliant energeWc. compeWWve under controlled manipulaWve,Si Subscales. Si1 Shyness Self Consciousness,Si2 Social Avoidance. Si3 Self Other AlienaWon,INTERPRETATION OF,MMPI 2 CODE TYPES. MMPI 2 Training Slides University of Minnesota Press 2015 Copyright for all MMPI and MMPI 2 materials are held by the Regents of the University of Minnesota. What are code types,Code type groups are more homogeneous. Greater likelihood that descriptors will t individual with the. More focused descriptors,Highest clinical scales in a pro le. High point codes One point code types highest clinical scale. Two point code types two highest clinical scales in pro le. Three point code types three highest clinical scales in pro le. Guidelines for InterpreLng Code Types,Excluding scales. Do not include scales 5 and 0 in determining code types These scales. are di erent in nature from the other eight clinical scales. Most previous code type research has not included them. Order of scales, Except when interpreLve materials speci cally indicate otherwise. order of scales in two and three point code types is not important. e g 13 code and 31 code have,same interpretaLon, MMPI 2 Training Slides University of Minnesota Press 2015 Copyright for all MMPI and MMPI 2 materials are held by the Regents of the University of Minnesota. Guidelines for InterpreLng Code Types, Interpret only de ned code types at least 5 T score points. between lowest scale in code type and next highest clinical scale in. pro le excluding 5 and 0,For pro les that do not have de ned code types. interpretaLon should focus on individual scales, When scales in de ned code types are elevated T 65. include both symptoms and personality descriptors in. interpretaLon,When scales in de ned code types are not elevated. T 65 include personality descriptors but not symptoms in. interpretaLon, SomaLc discomfort pain presents self as physically ill concerned about health. and bodily funcLons overreacts to minor physical dysfuncLon symptoms likely. to be in digesLve system weakness faLgue dizziness resists psychological. interpretaLons of symptoms, Anxious tense nervous restless irritable dysphoric brooding unhappy loss of. iniLaLve but not clinically depressed, Self conscious introverted and shy in social situaLons withdrawn and reclusive. doubts about own ability shows vacillaLon and indecision about even minor. maners hypersensiLve suspicious and untrusLng in relaLonships passive. dependent harbors hosLlity toward those who are perceived as not o ering. enough anenLon and support, Excessive use of alcohol is common usually given neuroLc diagnosis. hypochondriacal anxiety or depressive not good risk for tradiLonal. psychotherapy can tolerate high levels of discomfort before becoming. moLvated to change uLlizes repression and somaLzaLon lacks insight and self. understanding resists accepLng responsibility for own behavior short lived. symptomaLc changes ooen occur, MMPI 2 Training Slides University of Minnesota Press 2015 Copyright for all MMPI and MMPI 2 materials are held by the Regents of the University of Minnesota. Usually diagnosed as psychophysiologic or neuroLc hysterical hypochondriacal. classic conversion symptoms may be present, severe anxiety and depression absent funcLons at reduced level. of e ciency physical symptoms increase under stress and ooen. disappear when stress subsides, Prefers medical explanaLons of symptoms resists psychological interpretaLons. denying raLonalizing uninsighgul sees self as, normal responsible and without fault lacks appropriate concern. about symptoms and problems overly opLmisLc and pollyannaish. Immature egocentric sel sh insecure with strong needs for anenLon a ecLon. sympathy dependent but unaccepLng of dependency outgoing and socially. extraverted but relaLonships are super cial, lacks genuine involvement with people exploits social relaLonships lacks skills in. dealing with opposite sex may lack heterosexual drive. Harbors resentment and hosLlity toward those who are perceived as. not o ering enough anenLon and support overcontrolled passive aggressive with. occasional angry outbursts convenLonal and conforming in aqtudes and beliefs. Not moLvated for psychotherapy expects de nite answers and soluLons. to problems may terminate therapy prematurely when therapist fails to respond to. Severe hypochondriacal symptoms especially nonspeci c headaches. indecisive anxious socially extraverted but lacks skills with opposite. sex feels rebellious toward home and parents but doesn t express. these feelings excessive use of alcohol likely lacks drive poorly. de ned goals dissaLs ed pessimisLc demanding grouchy bitchy. resistant to tradiLonal psychotherapy, MMPI 2 Training Slides University of Minnesota Press 2015 Copyright for all MMPI and MMPI 2 materials are held by the Regents of the University of Minnesota. Harbors feelings of hosLlity and aggression but can t express them in. modulated adapLve manner either inhibited and bonled up or overly. belligerent and abrasive feels socially inadequate lacks trust in other. people isolated alienated nomadic life style unhappy and depressed. at a ect may be confused and distracLble can be diagnosed as. schizophrenic, Extreme distress and turmoil anxious tense restless somaLc. complaints reluctant to accept psychological explanaLons. super cially extraverted aggressive and belligerent but actually. passive dependent person who is trying to deny it ambiLous high. drive level but lacks clear goals frustrated by inability to achieve at. high level someLmes found in brain damaged persons who are. experiencing di culty in coping with de cits, MMPI 2 Training Slides University of Minnesota Press 2015 Copyright for all MMPI and MMPI 2 materials are held by the Regents of the University of Minnesota. Typically does not experience disabling anxiety but does feel nervous tense. worried sad depressed experiences faLgue exhausLon weakness lacks. interest and involvement in life situaLon can t get started on things decreased. physical acLvity gastrointesLnal complaints, Passive docile dependent self doubts inadequacy insecurity helplessness. elicits nurturance from others interested in achievement status power. compeLLve driven but afraid to place self in directly compeLLve situaLons. seeks increased responsibility but dreads pressure associated with it feels he. she doesn t get adequate recogniLon for accomplishments hurt by even minor. Overcontrolled can t express feelings feels bonled up denies unacceptable. impulses avoids social involvement feels especially uncomfortable around. opposite sex sexual maladjustment including frigidity and impotence is. FuncLons at lowered level of e ciency for long periods tolerates a great deal of. unhappiness usually diagnosed as depressive neurosis not very responsive to. psychotherapy not introspecLve lacks insight resists psychological formulaLons. of problems, Ooen in di culty with law impulsive and unable to delay graL caLon of. impulses linle respect for social standards and values acts out excessive. drinking likely, Frustrated by lack of own accomplishments resengul of demands placed by. others following acLng out may express guilt and remorse but is not sincere. suicidal ideaLon and anempts possible especially if both scales are grossly. EnergeLc sociable outgoing creates favorable rst impression tendencies to. manipulate others causes resentment in long term relaLonships beneath facade. of competent comfortable person is self conscious self dissaLs ed passive. dependent person may express need for help and desire to change but. prognosis for psychotherapy is poor likely to terminate therapy prematurely. when stress subsides or when extracted from legal di culLes. MMPI 2 Training Slides University of Minnesota Press 2015 Copyright for all MMPI and MMPI 2 materials are held by the Regents of the University of Minnesota. Anxious tense nervous worries excessively vulnerable to real and imagined. threat anLcipates problems before they occur overreacts to minor stress. somaLc symptoms faLgue exhausLon Lredness depressed unhappy sad. weight loss slow personal tempo slowed speech retarded thought processes. pessimisLc about overcoming problems broods ruminates. Strong need for achievement and recogniLon for accomplishments high. expectaLons for self and others guilty when goals are not met indecisive. feels inadequate insecure inferior intropuniLve rigid in thinking and problem. solving meLculous and perfecLonisLc may be excessively religious and. extremely moralisLc, Docile and passive dependent in relaLonships can t be even appropriately. asserLve capacity for forming deep emoLonal Les elicits nurturance from. others highly moLvated for psychotherapy remains in therapy considerable. improvement likely usually diagnosed as neuroLc depressive obsessive. compulsive anxious, Anxious agitated tense jumpy sleep disturbance inability to concentrate. forgegulness confused thinking ine cient in carrying out responsibiliLes. unoriginal and stereotyped in thinking and problem solving somaLc symptoms. underesLmates seriousness of problems unrealisLc self appraisal. Dependent unasserLve irritable resengul fears loss of control and doesn t. express emoLons denies impulses dissociaLve periods of acLng out may occur. sensiLve to reacLons of others suspicious of moLvaLons of others history of. being hurt emoLonally and fear of being hurt more avoids close interpersonal. relaLonships feelings,of despair and worthlessness. SuggesLve of serious maladjustment especially if both scales are grossly. elevated most common diagnoses are manic depressive psychosis involuLonal. melancholia and schizophrenia schizo a ecLve type chronic incapacitaLng. symptomatology guilt, ridden clinically depressed soo and reduced speech retarded stream of. thought tearfulness apathy indi erence preoccupaLon with suicidal thoughts. and may have speci c plan for doing away with self. MMPI 2 Training Slides University of Minnesota Press 2015 Copyright for all MMPI and MMPI 2 materials are held by the Regents of the University of Minnesota. Self centered narcissisLc ruminates about self worth expresses concern about. achieving at high level but sets self up for failure. in younger persons may suggest idenLty crisis, Anxious tense somaLc complaints in gastrointesLnal tract not parLcularly. depressed but may have history of serious depression uses alcohol as escape. from stress and pressure denying feelings of inadequacy and worthlessness. and defending against depression through excessive acLvity alternaLng periods. of increased acLvity and faLgue most common diagnosis is manic depressive. psychosis someLmes found for brain damaged paLents who have lost control. or who are trying to cope with de cits through excessive acLvity. Uses alcohol as escape from stress and pressure denying feelings of inadequacy. and worthlessness and defending against depression through excessive acLvity. alternaLng periods of increased acLvity and faLgue most common diagnosis is. manic depressive psychosis someLme found for brain damaged paLents who. have lost control or who are trying to cope with de cits through excessive. Chronic intense anger harbors hosLle and aggressive impulses. but can t express them appropriately usually overcontrolled but occasional brief. episodes of assaulLve violent acLng out lacks insight into origins and. consequences of behavior extrapuniLve does not see own behavior as. problemaLc, If scale 4 is higher than scale 3 at least 5 T score points problems with. uncontrolled anger expression are more likely if scale 3 is higher than scale 4 at. least 5 T score points uncontrolled anger expression is less likely. Free of disabling anxiety and depression somaLc complaints. may occur occasional upset does not seem to be related directly. to external stress, Deep chronic feelings of hosLlity toward family members demands anenLon. and approval from others sensiLve to rejecLon hosLle when criLcized. outwardly conforming but inwardly rebellious sexual maladjustment and. promiscuity common suicidal thoughts and anempts may follow acLng out. episodes most common diagnoses are passive aggressive personality and. emoLonally unstable personality, MMPI 2 Training Slides University of Minnesota Press 2015 Copyright for all MMPI and MMPI 2 materials are held by the Regents of the University of Minnesota.
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Empirical correlates of the MMPI-Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales in mental health, forensic, and non-clinical settings: An introduction. Journal of Personality
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