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696 www ck12 org,23 1 The Circulatory System,Lesson Objectives. Explain how the heart pumps blood throughout the body. Compare different types of blood vessels and their roles. Outline pathways of the pulmonary and systemic circulations. Define cardiovascular disease and list its risk factors. Describe blood blood components and blood pressure. Vocabulary, antigen molecule that the immune system identifies as foreign and responds to by forming antibodies. artery type of blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart toward the lungs or body. atherosclerosis condition in which plaque builds up inside arteries. blood fluid connective tissue that circulates throughout the body through blood vessels. blood pressure force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels. blood type genetic characteristic associated with the presence or absence of antigens on the surface of red blood. capillary smallest type of blood vessel that connects very small arteries and veins. cardiovascular disease CVD any disease that affects the heart or blood vessels. circulatory system organ system consisting of the heart blood vessels and blood that transports materials around. heart attack blockage of blood flow to heart muscle tissues that may result in the death of cardiac muscle fibers. hypertension high blood pressure, plasma golden yellow fluid part of blood that contains many dissolved substances and blood cells. platelet cell fragment in blood that helps blood clot. 23 1 The Circulatory System,www ck12 org 697, pulmonary circulation part of the circulatory system that carries blood between the heart and lungs. red blood cell type of cell in blood that contains hemoglobin and carries oxygen. systemic circulation part of the circulatory system that carries blood between the heart and body. vein type of blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart from the lungs or body. white blood cell type of cell in blood that defends the body against invading microorganisms or other threats in. blood or extracellular fluid,Introduction, The circulatory system can be compared to a system of interconnected one way roads that range from superhigh. ways to back alleys Like a network of roads the job of the circulatory system is to allow the transport of materials. from one place to another As described in Figure 23 1 the materials carried by the circulatory system include. hormones oxygen cellular wastes and nutrients from digested food Transport of all these materials is necessary to. maintain homeostasis of the body The main components of the circulatory system are the heart blood vessels and. blood Each of these components is described in detail below. FIGURE 23 1,The function of the circulatory system is. to move materials around the body, The heart is a muscular organ in the chest It consists mainly of cardiac muscle tissue and pumps blood through. blood vessels by repeated rhythmic contractions The heart has four chambers as shown in Figure 23 2 two upper. Chapter 23 The Circulatory Respiratory Digestive and Excretory Systems. 698 www ck12 org, atria singular atrium and two lower ventricles Valves between chambers keep blood flowing through the heart in. just one direction For an animation of the structures of the heart go to this link http www byrnehealthcare com a. nimations SutterAnatomy htm,FIGURE 23 2,The chambers of the heart and the. valves between them are shown here,Blood Flow Through the Heart. Blood flows through the heart in two separate loops which are indicated by the arrows in Figure 23 2 You can also. watch an animation of the heart pumping blood at this link http www nhlbi nih gov health dci Diseases hhw hhw. pumping html, a Blood from the body enters the right atrium of the heart The right atrium pumps the blood to the right. ventricle which pumps it to the lungs This loop is represented by the blue arrows in Figure 23 2. b Blood from the lungs enters the left atrium of the heart The left atrium pumps the blood to the left ventricle. which pumps it to the body This loop is represented by the red arrows in Figure 23 2. Unlike skeletal muscle cardiac muscle contracts without stimulation by the nervous system Instead specialized. cardiac muscle cells send out electrical impulses that stimulate the contractions As a result the atria and ventricles. normally contract with just the right timing to keep blood pumping efficiently through the heart You can watch. an animation to see how this happens at this link http www nhlbi nih gov health dci Diseases hhw hhw electrical. 23 1 The Circulatory System,www ck12 org 699,Blood Vessels. Blood vessels form a network throughout the body to transport blood to all the body cells There are three major. types of blood vessels arteries veins and capillaries All three are shown in Figure 23 3 and described below. FIGURE 23 3,Blood vessels include arteries veins,and capillaries. Arteries are muscular blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart They have thick walls that can. withstand the pressure of blood being pumped by the heart Arteries generally carry oxygen rich blood The. largest artery is the aorta which receives blood directly from the heart. Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart This blood is no longer under much pressure so. many veins have valves that prevent backflow of blood Veins generally carry deoxygenated blood The largest. vein is the inferior vena cava which carries blood from the lower body to the heart. Capillaries are the smallest type of blood vessels They connect very small arteries and veins The exchange. of gases and other substances between cells and the blood takes place across the extremely thin walls of. capillaries,Blood Vessels and Homeostasis, Blood vessels help regulate body processes by either constricting becoming narrower or dilating becoming wider. These actions occur in response to signals from the autonomic nervous system or the endocrine system Constriction. occurs when the muscular walls of blood vessels contract This reduces the amount of blood that can flow through. the vessels see Figure 23 4 Dilation occurs when the walls relax This increases blood flows through the vessels. Constriction and dilation allow the circulatory system to change the amount of blood flowing to different organs. For example during a fight or flight response dilation and constriction of blood vessels allow more blood to flow to. Chapter 23 The Circulatory Respiratory Digestive and Excretory Systems. 700 www ck12 org,FIGURE 23 4,When a blood vessel constricts less. blood can flow through it, skeletal muscles and less to flow to digestive organs Dilation of blood vessels in the skin allows more blood to flow. to the body surface so the body can lose heat Constriction of these blood vessels has the opposite effect and helps. conserve body heat,Blood Vessels and Blood Pressure. The force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels is called blood pressure Blood pressure is. highest in arteries and lowest in veins When you have your blood pressure checked it is the blood pressure in. arteries that is measured High blood pressure or hypertension is a serious health risk but can often be controlled. with lifestyle changes or medication You can learn more about hypertension by watching the animation at this link. http www healthcentral com high blood pressure introduction 47 115 html. Pulmonary and Systemic Circulations, The circulatory system actually consists of two separate systems pulmonary circulation and systemic circulation. You can watch animations of both systems at the following link http www pbs org wnet redgold journey phase2 a. Pulmonary Circulation, Pulmonary circulation is the part of the circulatory system that carries blood between the heart and lungs the term. pulmonary means of the lungs It is illustrated in Figure 23 5 Deoxygenated blood leaves the right ventricle. through pulmonary arteries which transport it to the lungs In the lungs the blood gives up carbon dioxide and picks. up oxygen The oxygenated blood then returns to the left atrium of the heart through pulmonary veins. 23 1 The Circulatory System,www ck12 org 701,FIGURE 23 5. The pulmonary circulation carries blood,between the heart and lungs. Systemic Circulation, Systemic circulation is the part of the circulatory system that carries blood between the heart and body It is. illustrated in Figure 23 6 Oxygenated blood leaves the left ventricle through the aorta The aorta and other arteries. transport the blood throughout the body where it gives up oxygen and picks up carbon dioxide The deoxygenated. blood then returns to the right atrium through veins. Cardiovascular Disease, Diseases of the heart and blood vessels called cardiovascular diseases CVD are very common The leading. cause of CVD is atherosclerosis,Atherosclerosis, Atherosclerosis is the buildup of plaque inside arteries see Figure 23 7 Plaque consists of cell debris cholesterol. and other substances Factors that contribute to plaque buildup include a high fat diet and smoking As plaque builds. up it narrows the arteries and reduces blood flow You can watch an animation about atherosclerosis at these links. http www youtube com watch v fLonh7ZesKs and http www youtube com watch v qRK7 DCDKEA. Coronary Heart Disease, Atherosclerosis of arteries that supply the heart muscle is called coronary heart disease This disease may or may. not have symptoms such as chest pain As the disease progresses there is an increased risk of heart attack A heart. attack occurs when the blood supply to part of the heart muscle is blocked and cardiac muscle fibers die Coronary. heart disease is the leading cause of death of adults in the U S. Chapter 23 The Circulatory Respiratory Digestive and Excretory Systems. 702 www ck12 org,FIGURE 23 6,The systemic circulation carries blood. between the heart and body,FIGURE 23 7,The fatty material inside the artery on. the right is plaque Notice how much,narrower the artery has become Less. blood can flow through it than the nor,mal artery,23 1 The Circulatory System. www ck12 org 703,Preventing Cardiovascular Disease. Many factors may increase the risk of developing coronary heart disease and other CVDs The risk of CVDs. increases with age and is greater in males than females at most ages Having a close relative with CVD also increases. the risk These factors cannot be controlled but other risk factors can including smoking lack of exercise and high. fat diet By making healthy lifestyle choices you can reduce your risk of developing CVD. Blood is a fluid connective tissue It circulates throughout the body through blood vessels by the pumping action of. the heart Blood in arteries carries oxygen and nutrients to all the body s cells Blood in veins carries carbon dioxide. and other wastes away from the cells to be excreted Blood also defends the body against infection repairs body. tissues transports hormones and controls the body s pH. Composition of Blood, The fluid part of blood is called plasma It is a watery golden yellow liquid that contains many dissolved substances. and blood cells Types of blood cells in plasma include red blood cells white blood cells and platelets see Figure. 23 8 You can learn more about blood and its components by watching the animation What Is Blood at this link. http www apan net meetings busan03 materials ws education demo los blood rlo whatisblood swf. FIGURE 23 8,Cells in blood include red blood cells. white blood cells and platelets, The trillions of red blood cells in blood plasma carry oxygen Red blood cells contain hemoglobin a protein. with iron that binds with oxygen, White blood cells are generally larger than red blood cells but far fewer in number They defend the body. in various ways For example white blood cells called phagocytes swallow and destroy microorganisms and. debris in the blood, Platelets are cell fragments involved in blood clotting They stick to tears in blood vessels and to each other. forming a plug at the site of injury They also release chemicals that are needed for clotting to occur. Chapter 23 The Circulatory Respiratory Digestive and Excretory Systems. 704 www ck12 org, An overview of red blood cells can be viewed at http www youtube com user khanacademy p c 7A9646BC5110. CF64 36 fLKOBQ6cZHA 16 30,Click image to the left for more content. Hemoglobin is discussed in detail at http www youtube com user khanacademy p c 7A9646BC5110CF64 38 LWtX. thfG9 M 14 34,Click image to the left for more content. Blood Type, Blood type is a genetic characteristic associated with the presence or absence of certain molecules called antigens. on the surface of red blood cells The most commonly known blood types are the ABO and Rhesus blood types. ABO blood type is determined by two common antigens often referred to simply as antigens A and B A. person may have blood type A only antigen A B only antigen B AB both antigens or O no antigens. Rhesus blood type is determined by one common antigen A person may either have the antigen Rh or lack. the antigen Rh, Blood type is important for medical reasons A person who needs a blood transfusion must receive blood that is the. same type as his or her own Otherwise the transfused blood may cause a potentially life threatening reaction in the. patient s bloodstream,Lesson Summary, The heart contracts rhythmically to pump blood to the lungs and the rest of the body Specialized cardiac. muscle cells trigger the contractions, Arteries carry blood away from the heart veins carry blood toward the heart and capillaries connect arteries. The pulmonary circulation carries blood between the heart and lungs The systemic circulation carries blood. between the heart and body, A disease that affects the heart or blood vessels is called a cardiovascular disease CVD The leading cause. of CVD is atherosclerosis or the buildup of plaque inside arteries Healthy lifestyle choices can reduce the. risk of developing CVD, Blood is a fluid connective tissue that contains a liquid component called plasma It also contains dissolved. substances and blood cells Red blood cells carry oxygen white blood cells defend the body and platelets. help blood clot,23 1 The Circulatory System,www ck12 org 705. A summary of the circulatory system blood cells and hemoglobin is available at http www youtube com user khan. academy p c 7A9646BC5110CF64 37 QhiVnFvshZg 14 57,Click image to the left for more content. Lesson Review Questions,1 Describe how blood flows through the heart. 2 What controls heartbeat,3 How do arteries differ from veins. 4 What is blood pressure What is hypertension, 5 List factors that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. 6 Identify three types of blood cells and their functions. Apply Concepts, 7 To take your pulse you press your fingers against an artery near the surface of the body What are you feeling and. measuring when you take your pulse Why can t you take your pulse by pressing your fingers against a vein. 8 People with type O blood are called universal donors because they can donate blood to anyone else regardless. of their ABO blood type Explain why,Think Critically. 9 Compare and contrast the pulmonary and systemic circulations. 10 Explain the role of blood vessels in homeostasis. Points to Consider, An important function of the circulatory system is transporting oxygen to cells. Do you know where blood gets the oxygen cells it needs. How do you think blood is able to give up its oxygen to cells. Chapter 23 The Circulatory Respiratory Digestive and Excretory Systems. 706 www ck12 org,23 2 The Respiratory System,Lesson Objectives. Define respiration and explain how it differs from cellular respiration. Identify the organs of the respiratory system, Outline the processes of ventilation gas exchange and gas transport. Describe the role of gas exchange in homeostasis,Explain how the rate of breathing is regulated. Identify diseases of the respiratory system,Vocabulary. asthma respiratory system disease in which air passages of the lungs periodically become too narrow making. breathing difficult, emphysema lung disease usually caused by smoking in which walls of alveoli break down so less gas can be. exchanged in the lungs, larynx organ of the respiratory system between the pharynx and trachea that is also called the voice box because. it allows the production of vocal sounds, lung organ of the respiratory system in which gas exchange takes place between the blood and the atmosphere. pharynx long tubular organ that connects the mouth and nasal cavity with the larynx through which air and food. pneumonia disease in which the alveoli of the lungs become inflamed and filled with fluid as a result of infection. respiration exchange of gases between the body and the outside air. respiratory system organ system that brings oxygen into the body and releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. trachea long tubular organ of the respiratory system also called the wind pipe that carries air between the larynx. ventilation process of carrying air from the atmosphere into the lungs. 23 2 The Respiratory System,www ck12 org 707,Introduction. Red blood cells are like trucks that transport cargo on a highway system Their cargo is oxygen and the highways. are blood vessels Where do red blood cells pick up their cargo of oxygen The answer is the lungs The lungs are. organs of the respiratory system The respiratory system is the body system that brings air containing oxygen into. the body and releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Respiration, The job of the respiratory system is the exchange of gases between the body and the outside air This process called. respiration actually consists of two parts In the first part oxygen in the air is drawn into the body and carbon. dioxide is released from the body through the respiratory tract In the second part the circulatory system delivers. the oxygen to body cells and picks up carbon dioxide from the cells in return The use of the word respiration in. relation to gas exchange is different from its use in the term cellular respiration Recall that cellular respiration is the. metabolic process by which cells obtain energy by burning glucose Cellular respiration uses oxygen and releases. carbon dioxide Respiration by the respiratory system supplies the oxygen and takes away the carbon dioxide. An overview of breathing is shown at http www youtube com user khanacademy p c 7A9646BC5110CF64 35. SPGRkexI cs 20 33,Click image to the left for more content. Organs of the Respiratory System, The organs of the respiratory system that bring air into the body are shown in Figure 23 9 Refer to the figure as you. read below about the passage of air through these organs You can also watch a detailed animation of the respiratory. system at this link http www youtube com watch v HiT621PrrO0. Journey of a Breath of Air, Take in a big breath of air through your nose As you inhale you may feel the air pass down your throat and notice. your chest expand Now exhale and observe the opposite events occurring Inhaling and exhaling may seem like. simple actions but they are just part of the complex process of respiration which includes these four steps. a Ventilation,b Pulmonary gas exchange,c Gas transport. d Peripheral gas exchange, Chapter 23 The Circulatory Respiratory Digestive and Excretory Systems. 708 www ck12 org,FIGURE 23 9,The organs of the respiratory system. move air into and out of the body,Ventilation, Respiration begins with ventilation This is the process of moving air in and out of the lungs The lungs are the. organs in which gas exchange takes place between blood and air. Air enters the respiratory system through the nose As the air passes through the nasal cavity mucus and hairs. trap any particles in the air The air is also warmed and moistened so it won t harm delicate tissues of the. Next the air passes through the pharynx a long tube that is shared with the digestive system A flap of. connective tissue called the epiglottis closes when food is swallowed to prevent choking. From the pharynx air next passes through the larynx or voice box The larynx contains vocal cords which. allow us to produce vocal sounds, After the larynx air moves into the trachea or wind pipe This is a long tube that leads down to the chest. In the chest the trachea divides as it enters the lungs to form the right and left bronchi The bronchi contain. cartilage which prevents them from collapsing Mucus in the bronchi traps any remaining particles in air. Tiny hairs called cilia line the bronchi and sweep the particles and mucus toward the throat so they can be. expelled from the body, Finally air passes from the bronchi into smaller passages called bronchioles The bronchioles end in tiny air. sacs called alveoli,23 2 The Respiratory System,www ck12 org 709. Pulmonary Gas Exchange, Pulmonary gas exchange is the exchange of gases between inhaled air and the blood It occurs in the alveoli of. the lungs Alveoli singular alveolus are grape like clusters surrounded by networks of thin walled pulmonary. capillaries After you inhale there is a greater concentration of oxygen in the alveoli than in the blood of the. pulmonary capillaries so oxygen diffuses from the alveoli into the blood across the capillaries see Figure 23 10. Carbon dioxide in contrast is more concentrated in the blood of the pulmonary capillaries than in the alveoli so. it diffuses in the opposite direction This link has an animation of pulmonary gas exchange http www youtube c. om watch v Z1h29R82mVc 38 NR 1,FIGURE 23 10,Alveoli are tiny sacs in the lungs where. gas exchange takes place,Gas Transport, After the blood in the pulmonary capillaries becomes saturated with oxygen it leaves the lungs and travels to the. heart The heart pumps the oxygen rich blood into arteries which carry it throughout the body Eventually the blood. travels into capillaries that supply body tissues These capillaries are called peripheral capillaries. Peripheral Gas Exchange, The cells of the body have a much lower concentration of oxygen than does the oxygenated blood in the peripheral. capillaries Therefore oxygen diffuses from the peripheral capillaries into body cells Carbon dioxide is produced by. cells as a byproduct of cellular respiration so it is more concentrated in the cells than in the blood of the peripheral. capillaries As a result carbon dioxide diffuses in the opposite direction. Chapter 23 The Circulatory Respiratory Digestive and Excretory Systems.
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