1 Routes To Syngas Schweitzer Fachinformationen-Books Pdf

1 Routes to Syngas Schweitzer Fachinformationen
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4 Concepts in Syngas Manufacture, approximately 7 109 GJ y is marginal to the total natural gas production. 3 07 1012 Nm3 y 78 or 1 17 1011 GJ y assuming a lower heating value. LHV equal to 38 MJ Nm3 Recent trends in the use of syngas are. dominated by the conversion of inexpensive remote natural gas into. liquid fuels gas to liquids or GTL and by a possible role in a future. hydrogen economy mainly associated with the use of fuel cells These. trends imply on the one hand the scale up to large scale GTL plants. more than 500 000 Nm3 syngas h and on the other hand the scale. down to small compact syngas units for fuel cells 5 100 Nm3 syngas or. H2 h These forecasts create new challenges for the technology and for. the catalysis, Table 1 1 Main chemical products based on natural gas. Yearly Energy Thermal LHV Efficiency, Product prod consumpt Practical Ideal CO2 Main technology. mil t y GJ t t t,Ammonia 124 29 65 89 16a Syngas synthesis. Ethylene 75 15b 62 93 0 65 Steam cracking C2H6,Propylene 53 Steam cracking C2H6.
Methanol 32 28 72 84 0 28 Syngas synthesis,Hydrogen 20 12 6 84c 92 0 9 Steam reforming. Synfuels 18d 67 60 78 1 18 Syngas synthesis,a incl CO2 converted into urea. b data kindly provided by F Dautzenberg ABB Lummus 2005. c CH4 used for reaction heat no steam export, d excl 3 million tonnes per year under construction. The data in Table 1 1 show that the practical efficiencies for natural. gas conversion into products are approximately 80 of the ideal values. expressed as,LHV product mol,LHV methane mol, For endothermic reactions ethylene hydrogen the LHV of the fuel. providing the reaction heat should be added to the nominator. The world energy production is dominated by fossil fuels as the main. energy source It amounted to 88 in 2007 with oil responsible for 37. CONCEPTS IN SYNGAS MANUFACTURE,Imperial College Press.
http www worldscibooks com chemistry p717 html,Routes to Syngas 5. 78 The energy consumption is growing fast in Asia and China has. become the world s second largest consumer of oil after the USA The. proved reserves of oil are concentrated in the Middle East 61 and. those of natural gas are also in the Middle East 41 followed by. Russia 23 78 Coal is more evenly distributed between the. continents, Apart from the large reserves Middle East Russia natural gas is. present as associated gas in oil fields However as many fields are far. from the marketplace and often off shore the gas there is called remote. gas or stranded gas 102 Part of the associated gas is reinjected to. enhance the oil recovery but unfortunately still a significant fraction is. flared for convenience The flared gas amounts to close to 5 of the total. natural gas production corresponding to about 1 of total world CO2. production from fossil fuels 263 420, So far the proven reserves for oil have followed the increase in. production as expressed by the reserves production ratio R P ratio. staying at about 40 for oil over the last 20 years however at a steadily. increasing cost of exploration and production A big fraction of the. reserves is present as oil sand tar sand and other non conventional. sources under active development 78 This means that at the present. world production the oil reserves known today will be used up within. about 40 years This figure should be considered with care It does not. include reserves still to be found and it does not include the changes in. consumption for instance the growth in Asia Furthermore the R P. ratio for oil varies from region to region being above 80 in the Middle. East and below 20 in North America, The R P ratio 2007 for natural gas is about 60 and 122 for coal 78. The total R P for fossil fuels based on oil equivalent is less than 100. years These figures emphasise the need for flexibility in the energy. network and the need for alternative fuels Oil is the most versatile of the. fossil fuels with high energy density and it is easily transported. The power industry is very flexible to feedstocks and it is feasible to. transport coal over long distances to big centralised power plants close to. deep water harbours Natural gas is transported to the marketplace in. pipelines over still longer distances or as liquified natural gas LNG. CONCEPTS IN SYNGAS MANUFACTURE,Imperial College Press.
http www worldscibooks com chemistry p717 html,6 Concepts in Syngas Manufacture. The automotive sector represents a special challenge as the energy. conversion is strongly decentralised So far oil derived products have. been the solution but in view of the limited reserves of oil a number of. alternative fuels are being considered such as liquefied petroleum gas. LPG natural gas methanol dimethylether DME ethanol biodiesel. synfuels and hydrogen Biofuels represent a sustainable response to. liquid fuels It may be based on ethanol and biodiesel derived from. conventional agricultural products or from synfuels via gasification of. biomass The alternative fuels may be blended with conventional fuels or. used directly in internal combustion engines ICE or fuel cells In. Western Europe alternative fuels may amount to 20 of energy sources. Globalisation has caused companies to concentrate on core business. and critical mass It has resulted in a restructure of the chemical industry. into two types of focused companies 190 the molecule suppliers. commodities and fine chemicals and the problem solvers functional. chemicals like additives and pharmaceuticals Each type has its own. characteristics as reflected by the role of the catalyst 418. The most important parameter for large volume chemicals is. production costs variable and fixed costs The variable costs are related. to the feed costs the use of energy process selectivity and environmental. Four trends have characterised plants for commodity chemicals. Location of cheap raw materials,Economy of scale,More integrated plants and. CO2 footprint tonnes CO2 per tonne product, Plants are moved to locations where raw materials are cheap As. illustrated in Figure 1 2 the ammonia production is hardly feasible at. natural gas prices typical for Europe and USA 3 4 USD GJ with high. seasonal variations 420 As a result new plants for commodity. chemicals are built at locations Middle East Trinidad Nigeria West. Australia with low natural gas prices 0 5 1 USD GJ It means that. CONCEPTS IN SYNGAS MANUFACTURE,Imperial College Press. http www worldscibooks com chemistry p717 html,Routes to Syngas 7.
the use of natural gas as feedstock may not be feasible where there is a. big market for natural gas as fuel, Figure 1 2 Ammonia production costs 420 Reproduced with the permission of. Plants have become larger to take advantage of the economy of scale. The economy of scale can be expressed by,Cost 1 Cost 2. capacity 2,n typically varies between 0 6 0 9, The economy of scale means choice of different technologies as they. may be characterised by different values of n, Today ammonia plants are built with capacities up to more than 3000. metric tons per day MTPD and methanol plants are being considered at. capacities of 10000 MTPD This corresponds to the size of synthetic fuel. plants based on FT synthesis 35 000 bpd At the same time as plants. become bigger there is a trend to minituarise chemical process plants. and take advantage of mass production the economy of numbers. competing with the economy of scale This is one of the key issues in the. hydrogen economy and the application of fuel cells Micro structured. CONCEPTS IN SYNGAS MANUFACTURE,Imperial College Press.
http www worldscibooks com chemistry p717 html,8 Concepts in Syngas Manufacture. process equipment components such as heat exchangers and new reactor. concepts are becoming available Plants have also become more. integrated to minimise energy consumption, It can be shown that the plant costs for a variety of processes correlate. with the energy transfer heat transfer compression within the process. scheme 289 As an example the energy consumption of ammonia. production has decreased over the last 50 years from about 40 GJ t to. 29 GJ t corresponding to a thermal efficiency LHV of 65 or 73 of. the theoretical minimum 169 420, Commodity plants depend on steady improvement and sophistication. of the technology Even small improvements of the process scheme may. show short payback times On the other hand the uncertainties. associated with new technology may easily outbalance the economic. advantage of a new process Improvement of one process step might. easily result in less favourable performance of another process step The. high degree of integration means that the weakest part of the chain may. determine the performance of the entire plant As an example there is a. need for more coke resistant catalysts and often deactivation phenomena. determine the process layout and the optimum process conditions to be. applied 404 It is evident that catalyst life i e on stream factor is. crucial for large scale commodity plants in contrast to batch wise. manufacture of fine chemicals, A few days production stop because of a catalyst failure may be. crucial for the plant economy It means that secondary phenomena such. as catalyst deactivation are important issues For large scale operation. economic arguments will limit the minimum space time yield to. approximately 0 1 tonne product m3 at a typical catalyst life of 5 years. 289 This corresponds to a catalyst consumption of less than 0 2 kg. cat t product For ammonia synthesis a typical figure is 0 03 kg cat t. These risks mean that it has become more expensive to develop new. process technology New technology must be demonstrated to a larger. extent not only the basic principles but also the solutions to a series of. secondary problems 400 418, Many well established processes are approaching their theoretically.
achievable efficiency selectivity etc refer to Table 1 1 but new. CONCEPTS IN SYNGAS MANUFACTURE,Imperial College Press. http www worldscibooks com chemistry p717 html,Routes to Syngas 9. challenges have been introduced by objectives for sustainable growth. formulated by society This has not only led to the introduction of new. products but also necessitated the development of new processes. Environmental challenges represent major room for breakthroughs in the. catalytic process industry, For any process scheme it is essential at an early stage to establish. the overall mass balance and to estimate the P as simply being the. difference between the price of products and the price of feedstocks. 418 Hence there has been a trend to develop processes using cheaper. raw materials The gain in P could however be lost by lower. selectivity or higher investments Selectivity is crucial to achieving a. high P Low selectivity and conversion per pass result in low. concentrations in process streams and hence more expensive separation. Figure 1 3 Simplified mass balance, It may be argued that energy efficiency is of less importance when. natural gas is cheap but high energy efficiency means small feed pretreat. units and reduced requirements for utilities and hence less investments. Moreover high efficiency means less CO2 production As illustrated. in Figure 1 3 the P calculation should consider also the energy. CONCEPTS IN SYNGAS MANUFACTURE,Imperial College Press.
http www worldscibooks com chemistry p717 html,10 Concepts in Syngas Manufacture. consumption and the by products which may easily have a negative. value This may be expressed by the so called E factor 458 expressing. the amount of by product produced per kg of product. The emissions may have great negative value This may be reflected. by the costs of carbon capture and storage CCS refer to Section 1 4 2. The CO2 emission expressed as a C factor 106 420 tonnes CO2 per. tonne product refer to Table 1 1 may become an important process. parameter in the future CO2 emissions are often directly related to the. energy consumption of the process, As an example a reduction of the energy required to produce. ammonia from natural gas of 1 GJ t means a reduction of CO2 emissions. of around 8 5 million tonnes CO2 y worldwide 416 In many ammonia. plants about 80 of the CO2 is reacted with ammonia to urea from which. it is of course liberated to the atmosphere when the urea is used as. fertiliser, On the other hand CO2 consuming processes will hardly change the. picture from non carbon containing fuel 416,As an example consider the methanol synthesis. CO 2 3H 2 CH 3OH H 2O 1 3, Even if hydrogen was made available from non carbon containing.
fuel the present world production of methanol via this reaction would. only amount to 40 million t CO2 y This corresponds to the CO2 emission. from a 4000 MW coal based power plant and should be compared with. the total CO2 emissions of approximately 27 5 109 t CO2 y 7 5 109. t carbon y It means that CO2 as a reactant will have little impact on the. CO2 problem Again the products will eventually end as CO2. A similar argument is valid for CO2 reforming of natural gas. 1 1 2 Direct or indirect conversion, An important challenge in C1 chemistry is to circumvent the syngas. step by a direct conversion of methane into useful products Still yields. are far from being economical 238 287 307 The methane molecule. Syngas synthesis Steam reforming Syngas synthesis a natural gas production corresponding to about 1 of total world CO2 production from fossil fuels 263 420 So far the proven reserves for oil have followed the increase in production as expressed by the reserves production ratio R P ratio staying at about 40 for oil over the last 20 years however at a steadily increasing cost

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