00 Barker Amp Jane Prelims Sage Publications Ltd-Books Pdf

00 Barker amp Jane Prelims SAGE Publications Ltd
02 Jun 2020 | 11 views | 0 downloads | 59 Pages | 9.60 MB

Share Pdf : 00 Barker Amp Jane Prelims Sage Publications Ltd

Download and Preview : 00 Barker Amp Jane Prelims Sage Publications Ltd


Report CopyRight/DMCA Form For : 00 Barker Amp Jane Prelims Sage Publications Ltd



Transcription

SEX SUBJECTIVITY AND,REPRESENTATION,KEY CONCEPTS,Femininity Patriarchy. Feminism Performativity,Gender Representation,Identification Subject position. Masculinity Transgender, This chapter is concerned with sex and gender that is with the character of women and. men in contemporary societies We shall explore the social construction of sexed subjects. with particular reference to questions of cultural representation The focus is on work influ. enced by feminism poststructuralism and psychoanalysis since these are the prevailing. streams of thought within cultural studies on these questions We shall also explore the. relationship between these constructionist paradigms and research from the biological. FEMINISM AND CULTURAL STUDIES, To discuss questions of sex and gender it is necessary to engage with a large body of. feminist theory It would be impossible to conceive of a cultural studies that did not do so. However while feminist thinking permeates cultural studies not all forms of feminism are. to be thought of as cultural studies Nor are all zones of cultural studies concerned with. questions of gender though many feminists might argue that they should be Consequently. this chapter does not purport to be a history classification or analysis of the women s. 09 Barker Jane Ch 09 indd 342 04 Apr 16 11 28 13 AM. SEX SUBJECTIVITY AND REPRESENTATION 343, movement per se Rather it is an exploration of those streams of thought within cultural.
studies that are concerned with sex gender and feminism. Sarah Franklin et al 1991 have pointed to a number of similarities of concern between. cultural studies and feminism They draw attention to. the aspirations of feminism and cultural studies to connect with social and political. movements outside of the academy, a critical stance vis vis more established disciplines such as sociology and English. literature, a mutual suspicion of and challenge to established ideas of certain knowledge. a wish to produce knowledges of and by marginalized and oppressed groups with the. avowed intention of making a political intervention. Cultural studies and feminism have shared a substantive interest in. issues of power representation popular culture subjectivity identities. and consumption, Feminism puts questions of sexuality gender subjectivity and power at the heart of cultural. Patriarchy equality and difference, Feminism is a plural field of theory and politics that has competing perspectives and pre. scriptions for action In general feminism asserts that sex is a fundamental and irreducible. axis of social organization which to date has subordinated women to men Thus femi. nism is centrally concerned with sex as an organizing principle of social life and one that is. thoroughly saturated with power relations Feminists have argued that the subordination of. women occurs across a whole range of social institutions and practices that is the subjec. tion of women is understood to be a structural condition This structural subordination of. women has been described by feminists as patriarchy a concept that has connotations of. male headed family mastery and superiority, As a movement feminism has been concerned with two key issues First to win citizen.
rights such as voting and equality before the law Second to influence cultural representa. tions and norms in ways that are beneficial to women Feminists have constructed a range. of analysis and political strategies by which to intervene in social life in pursuit of the inter. ests of women They have been broadly categorized as. liberal feminism,difference feminism,socialist feminism. 09 Barker Jane Ch 09 indd 343 04 Apr 16 11 28 13 AM. 344 CULTURAL STUDIES,poststructuralist feminism,black feminism. postcolonial feminism,postfeminism, These categories are not set in stone and do a disservice to feminism insofar as they erect. unhelpful and inflexible divisions However as explanatory devices they do point to vari. ations in the base assumptions and emphasis about what constitutes the interests of. Feminist waves, Before outlining the key features of the different categories listed above it is useful to sketch. another more populist approach to dividing different periods of feminism This is the. waves metaphor and it offers a simpler more chronological way to think about changes in. feminist practices over time, The first wave of feminist activism is associated with the suffragette movements in the.
late 19th and early 20th centuries Many first wave feminists were also involved with the. temperance and abolitionist movements While the suffragettes were seeking equality with. men in terms of the right to vote as per the ideals of liberal feminism there was also a sense. that women were morally superior to men making it a version of difference feminism. Second wave feminism is generally thought to extend from the 1960s into the 1990s This. period of feminist history is associated with radical activism such as the theatrical protests. at Miss America pageants when make up high heels and bras were thrown into rubbish bins. in front of reporters Contrary to popular mythology no bras were burned at these events. Third wave feminism is regarded as having begun in the mid 1990s and is associated. with the rebellion of younger women against what was perceived as the prescriptive pushy. and sex negative approach of older feminists The characteristics of third wave feminism. a term sometimes used interchangeably with postfeminism include. an emphasis on the differences among women due to race ethnicity class nationality. and religion, individual and do it yourself DIY tactics as opposed to collectivist politics. fluid and multiple subject positions and identities. cyberactivism, the reappropriation of derogatory terms such as slut and bitch for liberatory purposes. sex positivity for a more detailed discussion see the section on sex positivity below. 09 Barker Jane Ch 09 indd 344 04 Apr 16 11 28 13 AM. SEX SUBJECTIVITY AND REPRESENTATION 345,The limits of the wave metaphor. The division of feminism into waves has been critiqued for many reasons Wave theory. has been questioned for privileging history at the expense of ideas Further it focuses. on an extremely limited historical period in an extremely limited set of cultural condi. tions that is the feminist activities of white women in the West over the past. one and a half centuries Linda Nicholson s 2010 case is that the wave metaphor was. useful for second wave feminists because it reminded people that the women s rights. and liberation movements of the 1960s and 1970s were not historical aberrations but. were part of a long tradition of activism Like many other feminist scholars however. Nicholson believes the wave metaphor has outlived its usefulness and has become his. torically misleading and unhelpful politically This is because it suggests that gender. activism has been for the most part unified around one set of ideas and that set of. ideas can be called feminism 2010, A more textured approach is to unpack the various aspects of feminism by focusing on. theories and ideas rather than time periods and actions This enterprise however still. involves generalizations and simplifications As such the following categories should be. seen as an introduction to some dominant theoretical streams within feminism rather than. an exhaustive list of feminism s constituent theoretical parts. Liberal and socialist feminism, Liberal feminists regard differences between men and women as socio economic and.
cultural constructs rather than the outcome of an eternal biology They stress the need. for equality of opportunity for women in all spheres This is a goal that within the lib. eral democracies of the West is held to be achievable inside the broad structures of. existing legal and economic frameworks e g MacKinnon 1987 1991 In contrast. socialist feminists point to the interconnections between class and gender including the. fundamental place of gender inequalities in the reproduction of capitalism The subor. dination of women to men is seen as intrinsic to capitalism so that the full liberation. of women would require the overthrow of capitalist organization and social relations It. is argued that women s domestic labour is core to the reproduction of the workforce. both physically feeding clothing care etc and culturally learning appropriate behav. iour such as time keeping discipline respect for authority etc Further women are. said to form a supply of cheap and flexible labour for capitalism that is more easily. returned to the home when required Thus core to socialist feminism is a stress on the. dual role domestic labour and paid labour of women in the reproduction of capitalism. Oakley 1974,Difference feminism, Liberal and socialist feminists stress equality and sameness However difference feminism. asserts that there are essential distinctions between men and women These fundamental. 09 Barker Jane Ch 09 indd 345 04 Apr 16 11 28 13 AM. 346 CULTURAL STUDIES, and intractable differences are variously interpreted as cultural psychic and or biological. In any case difference is celebrated as representing the creative power of women and the. superiority of their values over those of men Daly 1987 Rich 1986 As such difference. feminism has developed a tendency towards separatism. One criticism of difference feminism and indeed of the concept of patriarchy is that the. category of woman is treated in an undifferentiated way The trouble with patriarchy as. Sheila Rowbotham 1981 argued is that it obscures the differences between individual. women and their particularities in favour of an all embracing universal form of oppression. Not only do all women appear to be oppressed in the same way but also there is a tendency. to represent them as helpless and powerless These are assumptions that are challenged by. black feminists who have argued that a white middle class movement has overlooked the. centrality of race and colonialism,Black and postcolonial feminism. Black feminists have pointed to the differences between black and white women s experi. ences cultural representations and interests Carby 1984 hooks 1992 They have argued. that colonialism and racism have structured power relationships between black and white. women defining women as white Gender intersects with race ethnicity and nationality to. produce different experiences of what it is to be a woman In a postcolonial context women. carry the double burden of being colonized by imperial powers and subordinated by colo. nial and native men Thus Spivak 1993 holds that the subaltern cannot speak She is. suggesting that for poor women there are no subject positions within the discourse of colo. nialism which allow them to speak,Poststructuralist feminism. Feminists influenced by poststructuralist and postmodern thought Nicholson 1990. Weedon 1997 have argued that sex and gender are social and cultural constructions that. are not to be explained in terms of biology or to be reduced to functions of capitalism This. anti essentialist stance suggests that femininity and masculinity are not universal and. eternal categories but discursive constructions That is femininity and masculinity are. ways of describing and disciplining human subjects As such poststructuralist feminism. is concerned with the cultural construction of subjectivity per se including a range of pos. sible masculinities and femininities Femininity and masculinity which are a matter of. how men and women are represented are held to be sites of continual political struggle. over meaning, Given its stress on culture representation language power and conflict.
poststructuralist feminism has become a major influence within cultural. 09 Barker Jane Ch 09 indd 346 04 Apr 16 11 28 13 AM. SEX SUBJECTIVITY AND REPRESENTATION 347,Feminist gains. The fundamental argument of feminism is that women are oppressed and subjugated by. men as a consequence of being women A radical feminist version of this position is that. all women are oppressed by all men Thus feminism has pointed to structural inequalities. in the economy and in the institutions of social and cultural power Further it is argued. that a wealth of male attitudes and behaviour for example contempt violence and sexual. harassment oppress women Despite decades of feminist action many continue to argue. that little or nothing has changed for women even within western culture. However Rosalind Coward 1999 has described feminism as a movement blind to its. own effectiveness She lists the following achievements. significant gains for women in the economy, an increased visibility for women in the cultural sphere. a transformation of knowledge in academia,changes in sexual attitudes and behaviour. the reform of pay and divorce laws,the recognition of male loss and vulnerability. the understanding that women can wield sexual and other forms of power. What is being argued here is not that gender inequality and injustice have been eliminated. rather that the central tenets of feminism have been absorbed into the culture and sur. passed Women are not necessarily oppressed by dint of being women and not all men are. oppressors What is being suggested is constructive dialogue and structural change where. necessary rather than a women vs men approach to understanding gender relations. 00 Barker amp Jane Prelims indd 3 04 Apr 16 11 28 24 AM 9 SEX SUBJECTIVITY AND REPRESENTATION KEY CONCEPTS Femininity Patriarchy Feminism Performativity GenderRepresentation Identification Subject position Masculinity Transgender This chapter is concerned with sex and gender that is with the character of women and men in contemporary societies We shall explore the social construction of

Related Books

JUAN PABLO II EXHORTACI N APOST LICA VITA CONSECRATA

JUAN PABLO II EXHORTACI N APOST LICA VITA CONSECRATA

2 JUAN PABLO II EXHORTACI N APOST LICA VITA CONSECRATA Roma 25 de marzo de 1996 Institutos Seculares 10 El Esp ritu Santo admirable art fice de la variedad de los

hf ben xvi enc 20051225 deus caritas est po

hf ben xvi enc 20051225 deus caritas est po

amp amp amp amp 0 1 2 2 amp 3 4 amp 0

evangelium vitae Catholic Pages com

evangelium vitae Catholic Pages com

Evangelium Vitae Addressed by the Supreme Pontiff JOHN PAUL II To the Bishops Priests and Deacons Men and Women Religious Lay Faithful and all People of Good Will On the Value and Inviolability of Human Life

fides et ratio Catholic Pages com

fides et ratio Catholic Pages com

ENCYCLICAL LETTER Fides et ratio Addressed by the Supreme Pontiff JOHN PAUL II To the Bishops of the Catholic Church On the Relationship Between Faith and Reason

CARTA ENC CLICA MATER ET MAGISTRA JUAN XXIII

CARTA ENC CLICA MATER ET MAGISTRA JUAN XXIII

1 carta enc clica mater et magistra de su santidad juan xxiii sobre el reciente desarrollo de la cuesti n social a la luz de la doctrina cristiana

LUMEN FIDEI Vatican va

LUMEN FIDEI Vatican va

encyclical letter lumen fidei of the supreme pontiff francis to the bishops priests and deacons consecrated persons and the lay faithful

LUMEN FIDEI FRAN OIS Vatican va

LUMEN FIDEI FRAN OIS Vatican va

3 1 L a Lumi re de La foi Lumen Fidei Par cette expression la tradition de l glise a d sign le grand don apport par J sus qui dans l vangile de Jean se pr sente ainsi

LAUDATO SI Vatican va

LAUDATO SI Vatican va

3 1 Laudato si mi Signore Praise be to you my Lord In the words of this beautiful canticle Saint Francis of Assisi reminds us that our common home is like a sister with whom we

FRAN OIS Vatican va

FRAN OIS Vatican va

3 1 Laudato si mi Signore Lou sois tu mon Seigneur chantait saint Fran ois d Assise Dans ce beau cantique il nous rappelait que notre maison commune est aussi comme une

Le Saint Si ge

Le Saint Si ge

Le Saint Si ge LETTRE ENCYCLIQUE LAUDATO SI DU SAINT P RE FRAN OIS SUR LA SAUVEGARDE DE LA MAISON COMMUNE 1 Laudato si mi Signore Lou sois tu mon Seigneur chantait saint Fran ois d Assise

Directory of Caribbean Publishers 10th ed

Directory of Caribbean Publishers 10th ed

iv Directory of Caribbean Publishers 10th ed This 10th edition of the Directory of Caribbean Publishers provides available contact information on publishers registered with th e Caribbean Regional ISBN Agency from 2005 to second quarter in 2016 This edition captures information for occasional personal and institutional publishers as