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Rabbinic parallels show that the men of old can be biblical authorities or from a later. perspective the early rabbis 7, All this reminds us of the only source of truth As important as the opinion of Godly men. may be it is only the word of God that is the real and true source of truth All men by. the nature of their fallen condition can error So we must continually return to the Word. in search of truth, murder8 There are several Greek words that refer to killing9 however Jesus picks. the one that only refers to killing a man unjustly Jesus is not opposed to capital. punishment as some incorrectly suppose when they read the Ten Commandments but. he is opposed to murder, But Jesus is saying One has not conformed to the better righteousness of the. kingdom simply by refraining from homicide 10 Jesus will now make it clear that this. phrase contains within it much more than a prohibition to murder. judgment11 what is in view is the whole process of being brought before the court. found guilty and punished 12, Jesus begins by citing the crime of murder in Exodus 20 13 for which biblical law. required a Jewish court to execute the sentence of death Gen 9 5 6 Deut 21 1 9. But Jesus presses beyond behavior specifically punished by law to the kind of heart that. generates such behavior 13, Matthew 5 22 But I say to you that everyone who is angry with his brother.
without cause will be liable to judgment whoever insults his brother will be. liable to the council and whoever says You fool will be liable to the hell of fire. This statement But I say to you rejects the claim by present interpreters that a. specific interpretation of a Torah commandment namely the one they advocated. had been revealed to the men of old whence it came down to the present What is not. rejected is the Torah quotation itself 14 What Jesus says But I tell you is thus. contrasted with what the disciples have hitherto heard a superficial and potentially. misleading reading of the OT texts as rules of conduct whereas Jesus is now going to. Hans Dieter Betz The Sermon on the Mount A Commentary on the Sermon on the Mount Including the Sermon. on the Plain Matthew 5 3 7 27 and Luke 6 20 49 ed Adela Yarbro Collins Hermeneia a Critical and Historical. Commentary on the Bible Minneapolis MN Fortress Press 1995 215. To murder kill a man unjustly Zodhiates S 2000 The complete word study dictionary New. Testament Chattanooga TN AMG Publishers, Louw J P Nida E A 1996 Greek English lexicon of the New Testament based on semantic domains 20 61. 20 88 New York United Bible Societies, Carson D A 1984 Matthew In F E Gaebelein Ed The Expositor s Bible Commentary Matthew Mark Luke. Vol 8 p 148 Grand Rapids MI Zondervan Publishing House. Separation figuratively division dissension decision crisis turn of affairs judgment Spiros Zodhiates. The Complete Word Study Dictionary New Testament Chattanooga TN AMG Publishers 2000. Nolland J 2005 The Gospel of Matthew A commentary on the Greek text New International Greek Testament. Commentary 229 Grand Rapids MI Carlisle W B Eerdmans Paternoster Press. Craig S Keener The Gospel of Matthew A Socio Rhetorical Commentary Grand Rapids MI Cambridge U K. Wm B Eerdmans Publishing Co 2009 183, Hans Dieter Betz The Sermon on the Mount A Commentary on the Sermon on the Mount Including the Sermon. on the Plain Matthew 5 3 7 27 and Luke 6 20 49 ed Adela Yarbro Collins Hermeneia a Critical and Historical. Commentary on the Bible Minneapolis MN Fortress Press 1995 217. indicate the right and deeper interpretation and use of those same God given texts 15. It is by these evaluations and pronouncements that he is filling full fulfilling the content. of the Old Testament, angry16 One might wonder why the word anger is used here instead of the word. hate Perhaps it is because hate can be hidden deep in the soul with little visible. evidence of its existence However anger lies closer to the surface and is very difficult. to conceal Anger feeds on hate and is dependent on it Anger assumes the existence. But How can the substitution of anger for murder claim to provide a more adequate. interpretation of Exod 20 13 What was really meant by forbidding murder What. was the original intent of the lawgiver s that is God s will According to the SM. Exod 20 13 is to be taken not merely as a criminal statute of law but in the first. instance as a moral rule based on the Golden Rule 7 12 The ethical demand. therefore must be preventive The goal must be to imagine a behavior that gains. control over anger and thereby eliminates the root cause of murder As a result the. original intent of the lawgiver did not involve the criminal law alone but both the criminal. law and the moral rule whereby the latter informs the former as the subsequent. examples demonstrate 17 Anger that would generate murder if unimpeded is the. spiritual equivalent of murder 18, brother19 In some sense the brother is the only person to whom you could be angry.
Not having contact with others generally we do not have reason to be angry with them. It is the proximity and interaction with others here called brothers that generally lays. the foundation for anger In this conversation Jesus would be talking about other Jews. in their family or community, The very first use of the word anger in the Bible is found in the story of Cain and Able. In this story we see the relationship between anger and murder. So Cain was very angry and his face fell The LORD said to Cain Why are. you angry and why has your face fallen If you do well will you not be. accepted And if you do not do well sin is crouching at the door Its desire is for. you but you must rule over it Cain spoke to Abel his brother And when they. were in the field Cain rose up against his brother Abel and killed him Genesis. Notice the phrase why has your face fallen Anger is a precursor to depression. which this phrase describes If the facts were known it is hate and anger that are the. France R T 2007 The Gospel of Matthew p 196 Grand Rapids MI Wm B Eerdmans Publication Co. be very angry be enraged Swanson J 1997 Dictionary of Biblical Languages with Semantic. Domains Greek New Testament Oak Harbor Logos Research Systems Inc. Hans Dieter Betz The Sermon on the Mount A Commentary on the Sermon on the Mount Including the Sermon. on the Plain Matthew 5 3 7 27 and Luke 6 20 49 ed Adela Yarbro Collins Hermeneia a Critical and Historical. Commentary on the Bible Minneapolis MN Fortress Press 1995 220. Craig S Keener The Gospel of Matthew A Socio Rhetorical Commentary Grand Rapids MI Cambridge U K. Wm B Eerdmans Publishing Co 2009 183, a person who lives close beside others and who thus by implication is a part of a so called in group. that is the group with which an individual identifies both ethnically and culturally neighbor brother Louw J. P Nida E A 1996 Greek English lexicon of the New Testament based on semantic domains New York. United Bible Societies, root cause of much of the depression in people today This hate and anger is generally. expressed in one of two ways If you have the power to do something about it violence. If you are without power depression To some degree this illustrates the difference. between men and women in such circumstances Because of their size and strength. men will often strike out in violence Because of the lack of size and strength women. will often turn in through depression But this is a generality for this depends on the. object of the hate and anger some men for good reasons cannot attack so they turn in. with depression Some women can attack and do, If anger were removed from marriages family relations neighbors people at work and. church members how much depression would remain Maybe very little The next. time you reach for a bottle of pills or alcohol because of the deep depression you are. going through because your face has fallen check the anger hate setting dealing. with that may eliminate the need for that bottle, Compare this counsel with that of others who say Oh my dear how horrible this.
person has treated you I don t know how you can go on dear dear Etc ad. Am I discounting the reality of the pain and suffering that others can bring into your life. I am not these things also happen to me as well and I too feel that pain However I am. suggesting something other than hate anger and depression as the proper response to. these horrors and they often are horrors I am suggesting the response of Job Look. to God after all he really is the one that has allowed all this in your life Why has he. When you look to God two responses are possible One he is using this mess to draw. to your attention defects in your own soul You sow and you reap Change what you. sow change what you reap Two like Job you may be guilty of nothing But God does. not delight in doing you evil However he does delight in making you his treasured. possession, They shall be mine says the LORD of hosts in the day when I make up my treasured. possession and I will spare them as a man spares his son who serves him Malachi. On that day the LORD their God will save them as the flock of his people for like the. jewels of a crown they shall shine on his land Zechariah 9 16 ESV. without cause Although omitted in some Greek manuscripts there is strong textual. evidence to support this phrase, There is much in this world that gives one cause for angry Such righteous indignation. reflects the holiness of God himself Jesus tells these stories of the righteous anger of. And in anger his master delivered him to the jailers until he should pay all his. debt Matthew 18 34 ESV,The master here is Jesus, The king was angry and he sent his troops and destroyed those murderers and. burned their city Matthew 22 7 ESV,The king in this story is Jesus. And Jesus entered the temple and drove out all who sold and bought in the. temple and he overturned the tables of the money changers and the seats of. those who sold pigeons He said to them It is written My house shall be called. a house of prayer but you make it a den of robbers Matthew 21 12 13 ESV. The word anger is not used in this last passage but I do not believe that there is any. doubt that he indeed was and with cause, However there is a problem with the phrase without cause We all imagine we have.
cause when in conflict with a brother and it is therefore okay for us to be angry thus. nullifying Jesus instructions It is hard to respond to this for by these words without. cause every person has a way to escape the obligations of this passage But consider. this if the anger is directed to those who offend God it is clearly justified If it is. directed to those who offend us then we have a greater problem we can be petty and. make mountains out of molehills and hate and be angry This is common but also. clearly condemned in the Bible We can also be magnanimous and let love cover a. multitude of sins This is not so common but clearly commended in the Bible But some. situations do not allow themselves to just be covered over and ignored even by love. To these Jesus says, Pay attention to yourselves If your brother sins rebuke him and if he repents forgive. him Luke 17 3 ESV, Generally the problem we face is not in forgiving a person who repents it is dealing. with a person who will not repent and almost certainly blames us for what is so. obviously their sin It is easy to be angry with a person who will not listen to reason let. alone the Bible, Through the centuries Christians have been persecuted defrauded beaten and. murdered Certainly we have cause to be angry with such people Cause or no cause. if we provide a home for this anger it will do no damage to the evil person but it will. certainly destroy us So the offense may be real and stand as an unaddressed wrong. between us and them but living a wise and godly life demands that we put such. emotions thoughts out of our life recognizing that they exist because God has allowed. them to exist i e Job There were many people that treated Job badly but we have no. record of him reacting with hate and anger at them for loss of property family and. health He simply turned to God not his enemies and said Why He never did get. that question fully answered but he did look in the right place for it. judgment20 Who will be responsible for this judgment The first comment on. judgment 5 21 was probably a human court with the eternal judgment of God hanging. in the background But at this point in our story the anger has not resulted in an. to judge a person to be guilty and liable to punishment to judge as guilty to condemn. condemnation Johannes P Louw and Eugene Albert Nida Greek English Lexicon of the New Testament Based on. Semantic Domains New York United Bible Societies 1996 555. outward offense no one has been murdered unlike verse 21 Yet it is still stated that. this person is subject to judgment, We know of no court in ancient Israel or today that would address the attitude of anger. that did not also include a criminal act One would think that if such a court did exist. there would have been a very long line down the street waiting to hear cases. Therefore it would appear that in this situation the judgment would be by God alone. The when is not addressed perhaps it takes place both in time through the negative. but just circumstances that enter the life of the hate filled and angry person and also in. eternity by the decree of God, So in this statement of judgment it does not appear that we are talking of a human.
court This person is liable to God s heavenly judgment for his attitudes of anger and. the hate that follows Earthly courts generally could not judge such offenses as. displays of anger But God s heavenly court would judge all such offenses 21. However this next phrase whoever insults his brother moves beyond the emotion of. anger to actions of anger and hate by means of name calling. insults22 A word of contempt meaning empty worthless foolish Utter. contempt 23 It is an Aramaic loan word, Where the anger may have been obvious in the prior statement although not legally. actionable here it progresses to contemptuous name calling slander and may now be. legally actionable Name calling humiliates and its intent is to hurt The primary. concern about name calling is not just that it is an inappropriate way to vent anger but. that it triggers anger in others Jesus commands us not only to check our own anger. but also not to provoke it in others 24, But name calling is simply one example on how a person can express hate and anger. In fact there are many other ways looks sneers gossip and the most difficult of the. all the privacy of our thoughts All come under this prohibition of anger. council25 The council operated in Jerusalem and served as something of a Supreme. Court for the nation There were also smaller tribunals in the cities of Palestine. subordinate to the Sanhedrin 26 These were also called councils. It is probably to one of these local councils that Jesus is referring We don t know. enough about their proceedings to know if they adjudicated matters like this or not. Craig S Keener The Gospel of Matthew A Socio Rhetorical Commentary Grand Rapids MI Cambridge U K. Wm B Eerdmans Publishing Co 2009 182, one who is totally lacking in understanding numskull fool Louw J P Nida E A 1996 Vol 1. Greek English lexicon of the New Testament Based on semantic domains electronic ed of the 2nd edition 387. New York United Bible Societies, Zodhiates S 2000 The complete word study dictionary New Testament Chattanooga TN AMG Publishers. David E Garland Reading Matthew A Literary and Theological Commentary on the First Gospel Reading the. New Testament Series Macon GA Smyth Helwys Publishing 2001 65. the highest Jewish council exercising jurisdiction in civil and religious matters but having no. power over life and death or over military actions or taxation Sanhedrin the council of the Jews Louw J P. Nida E A 1996 Vol 1 Greek English lexicon of the New Testament Based on semantic domains electronic ed. of the 2nd edition 132 New York United Bible Societies. Zodhiates S 2000 The complete word study dictionary New Testament Chattanooga TN AMG Publishers. However the flow of the argument suggest that the behavior of the name caller is. calling for some kind of review condemnation or judgment We would call these actions. slander and in our civil courts we do hold a person responsible for liable or slander. This may be the case here as well, You fool27 The pejorative language has not been restrained but has now repeated.
again this time using a Greek word that means substantially the same thing The anger. is growing, hell28 It would appears that the efforts of the council have not succeeded in bringing. solution to this problem of hate and anger The insults continue as a result this person. is now in danger of hell, The Greek term Gehenna is derived from a Hebrew phrase meaning Valley of. Hinnom a ravine running along the south side of Jerusalem and a place where the. rubbish from the city was constantly being burned According to late Jewish popular. belief the last judgment was to take place in this valley and hence the figurative. extension of meaning from Valley of Hinnom to hell 29. of fire Adding fire to Gehenna makes it clear that Jesus is clearly talking about. eternal damnation, We should stop and summarize These two words Raka and Moron are the terms. Jesus uses to condemn name calling But if we think about it we realize that in the. arena of possible slanderous terms these two are some of the milder ones available to. us And that is the lesson If we stop right there at these terms certainly we will not be. using the profane cursing and racially slanderous terms that we could use These. words are so far beyond the pale of what a believer should be saying that they are not. even entertained Instead we are told to be sensitive to much less pejorative language. and recognize that once we begin to think and act even in these terms hatred has. entered our souls, We should also keep in mind that if Jesus had used these more objectionable words. we might be inclined to think that the less offensive ones would be acceptable But by. choosing these words we can see that not only are the extremely abusive ones. forbidden even these are as well, The three results of hate have moved from judgment by God to the council and last to.
the hell of fire Although these three actions have not resulted in an outright murder. they are driven by the same heart of hate that results in murder The whole point is this. anger and hatred is subsumed under the command you shall not murder This is. Jesus argument Here he fills up the Old Testament with this new meaning. pertaining to being extremely unwise and foolish unwise foolish fool Louw J P Nida E A. 1996 Vol 1 Greek English lexicon of the New Testament Based on semantic domains electronic ed of the 2nd. edition 386 New York United Bible Societies, a place of punishment for the dead Gehenna hell Louw J P Nida E A 1996 Vol 1 Greek. English lexicon of the New Testament Based on semantic domains electronic ed of the 2nd edition 5 New. York United Bible Societies, Louw J P Nida E A 1996 Vol 1 Greek English lexicon of the New Testament Based on semantic domains. electronic ed of the 2nd edition 5 New York United Bible Societies. But before we move on we must ask about Jesus own use of the word fool. You blind fools For which is greater the gold or the temple that has made the. gold sacred Matthew 23 17 ESV, Although on shaky ground not every use of the word fool is slanderous Sometimes it. is a spiritual analysis In fact it is used 76 times in the bible 42 of them in Proverbs. alone a book of wisdom which often speaks about fools So Jesus and others have. used this word not as a hateful put down but as a spiritual evaluation Such use is not. Reconciliation 5 23 26, The anger hate and name calling discussed in verses 21 and 22 are certain to destroy. relationships Verses 23 through 26 describe how to mend these relationships Two. illustrations on problem solving are given one in verses 23 24 addresses the heart. condition and a second in verses 25 26 addresses a legal condition. Reconciliation Driven by Conscience, Matthew 5 23 So if you are offering your gift at the altar and there remember that.
your brother has something against you, So30 Or That being the case hating your brother and all this is what you are to do. offering your gift at the altar This offering is an act of public worship For most. people in Israel this could only take place after a long and arduous trip from home to. Jerusalem From where Jesus is then speaking that would be from Galilee to. Jerusalem The story is directed to a Jewish audience dedicated to Temple offerings. something against you Mark has something similar to say yet different at a critical. And whenever you stand praying forgive if you have anything against anyone. so that your Father also who is in heaven may forgive you your trespasses. Mark 11 25 ESV,Paul is even more general yet, When one of you has a grievance against another does he dare go to law. before the unrighteous instead of the saints 1 Corinthians 6 1 ESV. So it is not certain that the other person s attitude against you is a critical element in this. story The question is not however who expressed anger first but who should take the. initiative in reconciliation 31 No matter who is the guilty party it is necessary to address. markers of result often implying the conclusion of a process of reasoning so therefore consequently. accordingly then so then Louw J P Nida E A 1996 Greek English lexicon of the New Testament based on. semantic domains New York United Bible Societies, Hans Dieter Betz The Sermon on the Mount A Commentary on the Sermon on the Mount Including the Sermon. on the Plain Matthew 5 3 7 27 and Luke 6 20 49 ed Adela Yarbro Collins Hermeneia a Critical and Historical. Commentary on the Bible Minneapolis MN Fortress Press 1995 224. such a break quickly In fact the other person may have something against you. because of your own bad behavior So just because it is the other person who is. offended that does not mean that it is the other party who is at fault His conscience. may be more sensitive to God than your own, But ideally the two people would meet each other on the road each running to. reconcile with the other, Matthew 5 24 leave your gift there before the altar and go First be reconciled to.
your brother and then come and offer your gift, leave your gift there before the altar and go Again The only altar at which an. offering could be made was that of the temple in Jerusalem This saying presumably. uttered in Galilee thus envisages a worshipper who has traveled some eighty miles to. Jerusalem with his offering probably a sacrificial animal who then leaves the animal. in the temple while he makes a journey of a week or more to Galilee and back again in. order to effect a reconciliation with his offended brother or sister before he dares to. present his offering 32 religious rituals that seek atonement with God are profitless if. one disregards making amends for one s offenses against others 33. How quickly must you do this Right in the middle of worship when this comes rushing. in and crushing in upon conscience stop You must address this now To Jesus that s. how important this is Worship that is acceptable to God cannot take place against the. background of a damaged human relationship which is being ignored 34 In the light of. our strife ridden families churches and work places one can imagine that there may. not be as much Biblical worship taking place as we would like. Interestingly the early church applied this instruction to participating in the Lord s. Supper On the Lord s own day gather together and break bread and give thanks 35. having first confessed your sins so that your sacrifice may be pure 2 But let no one. who has a quarrel with a companion join you until they have been reconciled so that. your sacrifice may not be defiled 36, It is such an important doctrine that Jesus will mention it again in the Lord s Prayer. For if you forgive others their trespasses your heavenly Father will also forgive. you but if you do not forgive others their trespasses neither will your Father. forgive your trespasses Matthew 6 14 15 ESV, France R T 2007 The Gospel of Matthew p 203 Grand Rapids MI Wm B Eerdmans Publication Co. David E Garland Reading Matthew A Literary and Theological Commentary on the First Gospel Reading the. New Testament Series Macon GA Smyth Helwys Publishing 2001 66. Nolland J 2005 The Gospel of Matthew A commentary on the Greek text New International Greek Testament. Commentary 233 Grand Rapids MI Carlisle W B Eerdmans Paternoster Press. On a side note notice that the Church is worshiping and participating in the Lord s Supper on Sunday the. Lord s own day not Saturday, Michael William Holmes The Apostolic Fathers Greek Texts and English Translations Updated ed Grand. Rapids MI Baker Books 1999 267, reconciled37 The altar is the place where one goes to become reconciled with.
God 38 But in his story Jesus insists that reconciliation between others is necessary. before reconciliation with God is possible, It is more important to be cleared of offense before all men than to show up for Sunday. morning worship at the regular hour Forget the worship service and be reconciled to. your brother and only then worship God Men love to substitute ceremony for integrity. purity and love but Jesus will have none of it 39,Reconciliation Driven by Duress and Consequence. Matthew 5 25 Come to terms quickly with your accuser while you are going with. him to court lest your accuser hand you over to the judge and the judge to the. guard and you be put in prison, Our second illustration involves a court trial The last illustration on reconciliation was of. a man driven to act because of his own offended conscience In this one before us the. reconciliation is driven by duress the person is on the way to court and most probably. The two reconciliation stories illustrate two types of people The first is driven by. conscience the second is driven by fear of consequence Yet in both cases they deal. with the problem of anger But some have no conscience or fear of God and respond to. neither they are incorrigible hopeless irredeemable They are not reconciled to God. or man They live lives of anger hate and self destruction all the while blaming others. for their own misery, terms40 The word means benevolent kindly which is from e well and no s. mind To be well disposed or well intentioned toward another to be friends 41. The terms be well disposed and make friends with someone address the original. issue anger So again Jesus is advancing solution in the place of the anger In other. words be reconciled and be friends Abraham Lincoln was asked as the war drew to a. close if he was now going to destroy his enemies He replied I destroy my enemies. when I make friends with them It was his intention to impose an easy reconciliation of. the South in the Union Those that led in Congress after his death driven by hate and. anger imposed a bitter and harsh reconciliation instead As a result it took over a. century for the two half s of the country to heal the breach The solution to anger is not. more anger as the then leaders of the nation seemed to imagine it is to come to terms. To change one s own feelings towards to reconcile oneself become reconciled Spiros. Zodhiates The Complete Word Study Dictionary New Testament Chattanooga TN AMG Publishers 2000. David E Garland Reading Matthew A Literary and Theological Commentary on the First Gospel Reading the. New Testament Series Macon GA Smyth Helwys Publishing 2001 65. D A Carson Jesus Sermon on the Mount and His Confrontation with the World An Exposition of Matthew 5 10. Grand Rapids MI Baker Academic 1999 45, the verb be well disposed make friends with someone indicates reconciliation Hans.
Dieter Betz The Sermon on the Mount A Commentary on the Sermon on the Mount Including the Sermon on the. Plain Matthew 5 3 7 27 and Luke 6 20 49 ed Adela Yarbro Collins Hermeneia a Critical and Historical. Commentary on the Bible Minneapolis MN Fortress Press 1995 226. Spiros Zodhiates The Complete Word Study Dictionary New Testament Chattanooga TN AMG Publishers. quickly be well disposed make friends with someone And it is still the proper. solution today, accuser42 The accuser mentioned in this verse may be the very same person. mentioned in verse 22 however because reconciliation did not take place because of. conscience now the person is confronted with the legal consequence of his behavior. while you are going with him to court The untoward anger expressed itself. outwardly in slander Now this person is heading to court to face charges based on this. defamation of character, lest your accuser hand you over to the judge The implication here is that the. defendant has lost and now faces a stiff fine Can he pay the fine If not the accuser. has the option to hand the defendant over to the judge for further legal remedy While. Gentiles sometimes sold debtors into slavery to pay off a debt cf 18 25 sometimes. the debtor was imprisoned until relatives and friends could come up with the shameful. payment 43, Matthew 5 26 Truly I say to you you will never get out until you have paid the last. paid44 The person could now pay the fine if he had wealth stuck away that was not. publically known at the time of the trial Presumably he had refused to make this. known in the hope that the accuser would simply take what was offered and let him off. the hook for the rest It did not work out that way and now he is in prison In order to. get out of prison he can now avail himself of these funds and pay his debt If he had no. funds but did have family and friends that would pay this debt this would also provide. for his release, However if he simply did not have access to any funds he would stay there indefinitely. Indefinitely could be a very short time if he had no family or friends that would bring him. food The Romans did not generally support prisoners They would simply let you die. The justice system envisaged is not Jewish since there is no evidence for. imprisonment for a financial obligation in the Jewish legal system it is part of the Greek. and Roman patterns of justice 45 This is an important point we should not lose sight of. Jews living under Roman oppression The Roman oppressor continues to impress us. as the background of the Sermon on the Mount, penny46 Equal to about 11 25 minutes of work in that era maybe 1 50.
An adversary enemy or opponent in a lawsuit Spiros Zodhiates The Complete Word Study. Dictionary New Testament Chattanooga TN AMG Publishers 2000. Craig S Keener The Gospel of Matthew A Socio Rhetorical Commentary Grand Rapids MI Cambridge U K. Wm B Eerdmans Publishing Co 2009 185, to make a payment with the implication of such a payment being in response to an incurred. obligation to pay to render Louw J P Nida E A 1996 Greek English lexicon of the New Testament. based on semantic domains New York United Bible Societies. Nolland J 2005 The Gospel of Matthew A commentary on the Greek text New International Greek Testament. Commentary 234 Grand Rapids MI Carlisle W B Eerdmans Paternoster Press. a Roman copper coin worth 1 4 of an assarion or 1 64 of a denarius quadrans penny Louw J. P Nida E A 1996 Greek English lexicon of the New Testament based on semantic domains New York. United Bible Societies, we are probably to understand that the human judgment scene though intended. literally is meant to point beyond itself to the analogous judgment of God to whom we. must ultimately answer for our behaviour towards others 47 Through a variety of. terrible graphic images Jesus indicates that when one damages one s relationships. with others one damages one s relationship with God leading to eternal punishment cf. 18 21 35 48, The consequence of not solving the problem quickly is viewed in cataclysmic terms. The two illustration on reconciliation 5 23 26 make an important point Jesus will not. have us live with broken and damaged relationships Paul sums it up this way. If possible so far as it depends on you live peaceably with all Romans 12 18. Now it does not always depend on us but if possible we should pursue peace. In conclusion Jesus introduced the story to discuss the true meaning of the biblical. prohibition about murder In the story he makes it clear that anger is a form of murder. certainly murder in the heart He expands the story explaining that name calling even. the slightly offenses names let alone the gross ones are forbidden and are themselves. expressions of anger and hate and are precursors of murder He then address. reconciliation making it clear that the unreconciled state is dangerous and not at all. acceptable to one who enters his kingdom, Nolland J 2005 The Gospel of Matthew A commentary on the Greek text New International Greek Testament. Commentary 234 Grand Rapids MI Carlisle W B Eerdmans Paternoster Press. Craig S Keener The Gospel of Matthew A Socio Rhetorical Commentary Grand Rapids MI Cambridge U K.

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Iranian politics and religious modernism: the liberation movement of Iran. t. Iran. Politics I. Title 320.955 ISBN 1-85043-198-1 Printed in the United States of America For my parents . N.llillll ...