Vidyalankar T Y Diploma DC,Alternated,The compression of signal at. transmitter and expansion at,receiver is combinely called as Expansion at. companding receiver,Compression,at transmitter,Q 1 a iv Draw the waveforms of ASK FSK PSK. SK for binary input 4,A Given bit stream 101101110. 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0,ASK 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0,VFSK fH fL fH fL fH. 2 0714 TY Pre Pap Elec 2014 CP Class DC,Vidyalankar T Y Diploma DC. Q 1 b Attempt any ONE of the following 6, Q 1 b i Discuss ASCII codes with suitable examples 6. A ASCII Code American standard code for information interchange. Number of bits used to represent every symbol is 7 Number of different. bit patterns 128,30H 0 0110000,31H 1 0110001,32H 2 0110010. 39H 9 0111001,41H A 1000001,42H B 1000010,an5A Z 1011010. 61H a 1100001,62H b 1100010,7AH z 1111010,Example BABA. 1000010 1000001 1000010 1000001,Co 1000011,1 0 0 0 0 1 1. Q 1 b ii Draw,D the block,b diagram for the generation of PAM State the 6. function of each block,A Block diagram,diag for the generation of PAM. Pulse amplitude, a modulation is an analog to digital technique were the. amplitude variations at input analog signal are converted into corresponding. output digital signal Hence here we make use of sampling the block diagram. is as shown below,Vidyalankar T Y Diploma DC,Q 2 Attempt any FOUR of the following 16. Q 2 a List various properties required for line codes 4. A Properties of line codes,i DC content,ii Signal power. i For a good line code DC content should,hould be possible Split phase. e as low as possib, an Manchester consist of very low omponent where as NRZ L and. w DC component,unipolar NRZ consists of large DC contents. If there is channel is less noisy then we use split p Manchester. ii For a good line code signal,gnal power should be as high as possible so that. noise required to corruptpt the large NRZ,rrupt N L and un. unipolar NRZ has high, signal power than split phasee Manchester an and RZ. Q 2 b Discuss Multiplexing,nd its types,A Multiplexing and itss type. Multiplexing,ng is the technique whic,which allows the simultaneous transmission of. multiple signal data link,Multiplexing, exing device is a pphysical line or a medium or a into logical segment. led as channels,Example cable,Common communication Link. Multiplexing,analog digital,Synchronous TDM Asynchronous TDM. 4 0714 TY Pre Pap Elec 2014 CP Class DC,Vidyalankar T Y Diploma DC. Q 2 c What is need for delta modulation Give its advantages 4. disadvantages and applications,A Delta Modulation DM. x In PCM N number of bits are transmitted per quantized sample mple which. asks for large channel Bandwidth and signaling rate. x This disadvantage can be overcome by using DM, x DM transmits only one bit per sample instead of f N therefore it. extensively reduces signaling rate and channel Bandwidth. Advantages,i One bit codeword for output, ii Simplicity of design for transmitter and receiver. iii Low signaling rate,iv Low channel Bandwidth,Disadvantage. an i Slope overload present,ii Granular Noise,Application. i Satellite transmission,ii Digital Communication,Q 2 d Write bandwidthh requirement. rement for DPSK,DPSK QAM QPSK BPSK 4,A Bandwidth requirement. bol duration Ts 2Tb,2 fb 2 fb 2,Bandwidth fb,Bandwidth fb. B fs fs 2fs,2fs fs 0 fs 2fs,Vidyalankar T Y Diploma DC. Bandwidth fb 2 fb 2,bandwidth fb,Bandwidth f0 fb f0 fb. f0 fb f0 fb,Babdwidth 2fb,an f0 fb f0,Q 2 e Compare QPSK and QASK. SK 4 points,b f0 fb f0 f0 fb,A Comparison between QPSK andd QASK. Parameters,ters QPSK QASK,i Type of Modulation n Quadrature Phase. Ph Quadrature Phase and,Modulation Amplitude Modulation. ii Location,ation of signal,nal On the circumference. c of Equally spaced and,circle placed symmetrical,about origin. iii Distance, istance between d 2 Eb for N 2 d 2 0 4Eb for N 4 or. he signal points,iv Noise immunit,immunity Better than QASK More than QPSK. v Probability of error,erro Less than QASK More than QPSK. vi Type oof Synchronous Synchronous,Demodulatio,Demodulation. vii System co,complexity Less complex than More complex than. 6 0714 TY Pre Pap Elec 2014 CP Class DC,Vidyalankar T Y Diploma DC. Q 3 Attempt any FOUR of the following 16, Q 3 a Explain the unipolar polar and bipolar line codes 4. A Unipolar Format, This is also known as on off signaling In this symbol 1 is represented. switching off the pulse When the pulse occupies the full duration symbol. the unipolar format is said to be of the non return to zero NRZ. When it occupies one half of the symbol duration it is said to be of the. return to zero RZ type When it occupies one half of the symbol. duration it is said to be of the return to zero RZ type. 0 0 1 1 0 0 1,ers simplicity of implement,The unipolar format offers implementation. Polar Format,In this a positive,e is transmitted f. symbol 1 and negative pulse for, symbol 0 It can be e of the NRZ or RRZ type A polar wave form has no dc. component provideded that the 0s and 1s in the input data occur in equal. proportion,0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1,Bipolar Format, This is also known as pseudoternary signaling In this positive and negative. pulses are used alternately for the transmission of 1s and no pulses for. transmission of 0s It can be of RZ or NRZ type,Vidyalankar T Y Diploma DC. Important feature of bipolar format is that in the absence of a dc. component even though the input binary data may contain long strings of. The pulse alternation property of bipolar format provides a capacity cit for. in service performance monitoring such that any isolated error rror which. causes the deletion or creation of a pulse will violet this property. Bipolar format eliminates the ambiguity that may arise rise because. polarity inversion during the course of transmission. For these reasons the bipolar format is used in the he T1 carrier systems. for digital telephony,0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1,Q 3 b Discuss Shannon s theoremem in brief 4. A Shannon s Theorem,x Also knownwn as source,ource coding theorem. x Statementent Given a discrete memor,memoryless source of entropy H the. rage code word length for any source,sou coding is bounded as L t H. x Explanation,xplanation,planation For any source,encoder code efficiency is given as. H o entropy H pi log2 1,L o averag,average code word length L pi Ai. A i is length of the code in bits, As such if L t H minimum value of L i e Lmin H Under such. circumstances efficiency will be maximum To increase efficiency. variable length coding is done,eg Huffman code,8 0714 TY Pre Pap Elec 2014 CP Class DC. Vidyalankar T Y Diploma DC,Q 3 c Describe WDM in detail 4. A Wavelength Division Multiplexing WDM,Fiber 1 Fiber 2 Fiber 3. Spectrum Spectrum Spectrum,Shared fiber Fiber,Fiber 2 Fiber. an i Channels having different frequency,ii The only difference. ency ranges can be,b multiplexed,multipl on a long. e with electrical FDM iis that optical system is,completely passive. iii Reason WDM iss popular,ular is that the ene,energy on a signal factor is a few. gigahertz width,dth because impossible to convert,cause it is impossib co. iv Hence wavelength,th division multiplexing,multiplex is e. Q 3 d Compare,e between FHSS and DSS,DSSS 4 points 4. rison between DSSS,Comparison DSS and FHSS,Parameters DSSS FHSS. i Definition PN sequ,se of large Data bits are transmitted. ndw is multiplied in different frequency,wit narrow band data slots which are changed by. signal PN sequence,ii Chip rate It is fixed Rc Rc max Rh Rs. iii Modulation,Modulat BPSK M ary FSK,v Processing gain PG N PG 2t. Vidyalankar T Y Diploma DC,Error 1 Eb 1 rb,v Pe erfc Pe e Rc 2. probability 2 JTc 2,vi Acquisition time Long Short. vii Effect of This system is distance Effect of distance. distance relative, Q 3 e Explain multiplexing hierarchy AT T for FDM system 4. A Multiplexing Hierarchy in FDM, x Consider example at telephony in which each voice channel iss having range of. 300Hz to 3 4 KHz,x Here we need to multiplex such n no of voice. ice channel by modulatin,modulating it,with different subcarriers. x Multiplexing hierarchy goes as follows,Level 1 Basic Group 12 voice channels. nnels multiplied,ultiplied together,an Level 2 Super Group Upto 5 B G. Level 3 Master Group Upto,Level 4 Jumbo Group Upto. G mux together,her i e upto 12u5 60 channels,togethe i e upto 600 V C. to 10 S Cr mux together,to 6 M G maximum together,togeth i e upto. u 3600 V C,2u4 48 KHz,S1 2 48 240 K,240 u 10 2400K. M 2400 u 6,5 2 D 14 400K,5 2 D channel,a Attempt an. Q 4 a any THREE o of the following 12, Q 4 a i List and explain different types of errors in data communication 4. A Types of error,i SSingle bit error or one bit error. ii Burst error, Singl bit error if only 1 bit in transmitted bit sequence is changed. because of noise then it is called as single bit error. 10 0714 TY Pre Pap Elec 2014 CP Class DC,Vidyalankar T Y Diploma DC. transmitted C 1 0 0 0 0 1 1,Received bit seq 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 z code of C. Burst error If 2 or more than 2 bits are changed because. cause of noise then it,is called as Burst error, Q 4 a ii Explain Baudot code with suitable example. A Baudot code,In baudot coding every symbol is represented. nted by using 5 binary bits,2 special codes are used. i figure shift code 1 1 1 1 1,ii letter shift code 1 1 0 1 1. By using 5 bit code we can,n generate only 32 differ binary bit sequence. different bin,but the number of characters,rs in English text are more. acters m than,t 32 SO 2 special,codes are used Now codes. odes attached,ached like this,xample A B,11011 11000 11111 11000. 11011 10011 11111 10011,sh Figure shift,special co. Define sampling theorem List types of sampling techniques 4. Draw the naturally sampled signal,A Sampling,Sampli Theorem. Ab bandlimited signal can be reconstructed exactly if it is sampled at a rate. atleast twice the maximum frequency component in it. Vidyalankar T Y Diploma DC,There are two types of sampling technique. 1 Natural sampling,2 Flat top sampling,Natural Sampled. Q 4 a iv Explain cyclic redundenry check with suitable diagram Explain Expl 4. CRC for data 100100 to be transmitted tted with division 1101. A Cyclic redundancy cheek technique iss more powerful than p parity ch. check sum error detection,x It is based on binary division. x A sequence of redundant called CRC or CRC remainder remain is appended. end of data unit such ass byte, x The resulting data unitt after adding CRC remainder re. remainde becomes exactly,divisible by anotherer predetermined. ermined binary no, x At the receiver r this data unit is divided by the same binary no. x There is no error if f this division does not yield. yie any remainder,x But a non zerozero remainder, emainder indicates p presence of error in received data unit. x Such an n erroneous,ous bit is then rejected,x Dividede the data unit by predete. predetermined divisor,btain the remainder which,x CRCRC should have exactly bit. b less than divisor,x Append the CR CRC to th,the end n bit. of the data unit and then Data 00 0,divide predetermined. vide it with pre,12 0714 TY Pre Pap Elec 2014 CP Class DC. Vidyalankar T Y Diploma DC,Data 100100,Divisor 1101 n no of divisor bits 1. divided 100100000,Divisor 1101,1101 100100000,an CRC 001. Code word Data CRC,1001000011,Q 4 b Attempt any ONE of the following ng 6. Q 4 b i Discuss Frequency,uency Hopping FH sprspread spec. spectrum 6,A Frequency Hopping H spread spectrum is a F. ping FH FM or FSK technique while DS,spread spectrum. rum described, escribed in sec 2 is an AM or PSK technique The signal. to be frequency pped is usually a BFSK ssignal although M ary FSK MSK or. quency hopped,TFM canan be employed Conside,Considering ththat BFSK is used we have that the. nal signal before spread,spre spectrum,spectru is applied is. s t 2Ps cos Z0 t d t, where d t is the data to be ttransmitted The FH modulation is then applied. by varying the carrier frequency,freq so that the resulting FH spread spectrum is. v t 2Ps cos Z0 t d t t T, Here the FH signal has a carrier frequency fi Zi 2S which changes at the. hopping rate fH i e, hop i the carrier frequency fi changes each TH seconds The. frequency cho, frequ chosen each TH is selected in a pseudo random manner from a. specified se, speci set of frequencies Typically 32 500 different frequencies are used. to form this, he primary advantage of FH is that it enables the transmitter to change its. carrier frequency and thereby avoid an otherwise in band interfering signal. For example consider that the FH signal spends an equal time at each of 1000. Vidyalankar T Y Diploma DC, frequencies f1 f2 f1000 Also assume that BFSK is employed Then if the. bit rate of the data is fb the bandwidth used by the signal at any carrier. frequency fi is B 4fb Now assume that there is an interfering signal having a. bandwidth B 4fb and a fixed center frequency fj If frequency hopping ing were. not employed and the interference were located at the transmitted ted signal s. carrier frequency i e j i then if the interfering signal powerr were we. sufficiently large the probability of error would be Pe 0 5 since. circumstances we could do no better than to guess In a military y system the. interferer determines the signal s carrier frequency and purposelyely transmits at. loying FH and using, that frequency to block or jam the communications By employing. say 1000 frequencies the probability of the same interferer. nterferer causing an error is,reduced to Pe 1 2000 5 u 10 note that thermal. mal noise is ignored since it is, considered to be a second order effect when jamming g is present. Q 4 b ii Explain the properties of Hamming ng Code. an Define 1 Hamming distance ce,2 Minimum distance. 3 Weight of code words,etection capacity,4 Error detection. 5 Errorr correction,rrection capacity,A Properties of Hamming ng Code. i Hamming codes are linear near,ii Number of bits in codeword. odeword is equal to,where q numberer of extra bit,eg if Q 3 then n. iii Number shoul be always equal to 2q 1 q,ber of message bit K should. iv Forr the hamming code the th minimum,m distance dmin 3. v Hamming codes can gene generate,gener systematic as well as non systematic code. vi Hamming codes,code are used to detect burst error. Hamming Distance, Dist d It is defined as the number of bits in which 2. valid codewords,codew differ from each other,e g X1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1. X2 1 1 0 1 0 1 1, ii Minimum distance dmin It is smallest hamming distance between any 2. valid codewords,14 0714 TY Pre Pap Elec 2014 CP Class DC. Vidyalankar T Y Diploma DC, iii Weight of codewords W It is number of man zero elements of. codeword provided Codeword is not all zero codeword. dmin Min W x,where X z 0 0 0 0 0, Error detection Capability It is calculated by this dmin t S 1. Where dmin Minimum distance,S Number of bits in error that can be detected ed. e g dmin 3,upto 2 bits in the error can be detected. Error correction capability it is calculated,y this expression. dmin t 2t 1,anwhere t number of bits in error that. hat can be corrected,this coding technique an correct upto 1 b. Q 5 Attempt any y FOUR of the following 16,Q 5 a Draw the e waveforms. ms for 101001,1010011 for 4,it phase monchester,i Split monchest. erential monchester,ii Differential monchest line cocode formats. or 1010011,1 0 1 0 0 1 1,Split phase,ve manchester.
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